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what are the six major classes of enzymes?
- 1. oxidoreductases
- 2. transferases
- 3. Hydrolases
- 4. lysases
- 5. isomerases
- 6. ligases
what do oxidoreductases do?
catalyze redox reactions
what do transferases do?
they transfer a functional group from one molecule to another
what do hydrolyases do?
the break down bonds in the presence of water
what do lysases do?
they remove/add atoms to make double bonds
what do isomeraes do?
they move functional groups within a molecule
what do ligases do?
they join two molecules @ the expense of ATP
an enzyme without its cofactor is referred to as
the complete, catalytically active enzyme is called a
the catalytic activity of many enzymes depends on the presence of small molecules termed...
what are the two types of cofactors?
- 1. small organic molecules, derived from vitamins, called coenzymes
- 2. metals
tightly bound coenzymes are called ____ _____
a reaction can take place spontaneously only when...
the ΔG is negative
what is the ΔG at equilibrium?
True or falsE? enzymes accelerate the attainment of equilibria and shift their positions.
false. enzymes accelerate the attainment of equilibria BUT DO NOT shift their positions
what accounts for the lowering of activation energy by an enzyme?
free energy is released by the formation of a large number of weak interactions between a complementary enzyme and substrate. This release in free energy decreases the activation energy.