Muscular System

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  1. What is a muscle?
    an organ that allows animals to move
  2. What does the muscular system do?
    provides locomotion
  3. What are the three types of muscles?
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
    • smooth
  4. How do muscles interact with the cardiac system?
    pump blood
  5. How do muscles interact with the digestive system?
    smooth muscles help move things along down the system
  6. What type of movement is used by the skeletal system?
    voluntary movement stimulated by the nervous system
  7. Why are muscles striated?
    due to myofibrils
  8. functions of the skeletal systems:
    • maintenance
    • movement of body posture
    • locomotion
  9. What type of muscle is the primary muscle of the body?
  10. What type of cells are in skeletal muscle?
    multi-nucleated myocites
  11. How does the brain control the skeletal system?
    • a receptor sends a message to the brain that sends the message to the muscle
    • effectors
  12. What type of movement does cardiac muscle have?
    • involuntary movement
    • has its own pace-maker
  13. What types of muscle are striated?
    • skeletal
    • cardiac
  14. What type of cells do cardiac muscle have?
    branched, single nucleated cells
  15. What do intercalated disks do?
    allow continual nerve impulses throughout the muscle
  16. What is the primary tissue of the heart?
    cardiac muscle
  17. What is the function of cardiac muscle?
    • heart contractions
    • pumps blood into the circulatory system
  18. systolic:
  19. diastolic:
  20. What type of movement does smooth muscle have?
    • involuntary
    • controlled by the automatic nervous system
    • Homeostasis
  21. What are pennate muscles?
    • feathering of muscle fibers
    • make up tendons
  22. What are uni-pennate muscles?
    • tendons on a single side of the muscle
    • ex: extensor tendon
  23. What type of cells does smooth muscle have?
    tapered, single-nucleated cells
  24. What is the function of smooth muscle?
    movement in digestive system, eyes and hair
  25. What are bi-pennate muscles?
    • have tendons on both sides
    • ex: gastrocnemius
  26. What are multi-pennate muscles?
    • tendons throughout the muscle
    • ex: deltoid
  27. Functions of smooth muscle:
    • 99% visceral (digestive system)
    • 1% pupil dilation, erector muscles in hair
  28. How are muscles attached?
    one end is usually fixed, other end moves towards the fixed end
  29. What is the origin of a muscle?
    • fixed end
    • proximal orientation
    • not much movement
  30. What is the insertion of a muscle?
    • moveable end
    • distal orientation
  31. Tendons are usually found:
    near the insertion point
  32. What does a flexor do?
    • closes joint
    • causes angulation
  33. What does an extensor do?
    • opens joint
    • causes straightening
  34. What is an agonist?
    • primary mover
    • ex: bicep
  35. What is an antagonist?
    • works against the primary mover
    • help prevent over-extension or over-flexion
    • ex: tricep
  36. What is the endomysium?
    CT around individual muscle fibers
  37. What is the perimysium?
    CT around a bundle of muscle fibers
  38. What is the epimysium?
    • dense, CT sheet covering a whole muscle
    • separates muscles out from adjacent tissue and other muscles
  39. What is a fasicle?
    small bundles within a specific muscle
  40. What's inside skeletal muscle?
    striated muscle fibers grouped into bundles and surrounded by connective tissue
  41. What kind of junctions cause muscles to contract?
    nueromuscular junctions
  42. What are myofibrils?
    • tiny parallel fibers that are multi-nucleated
    • small in diameter but long
  43. What is the sarcolemma?
    thin, translucent sheet that surrounds each myofirbril
  44. What is the location for nervous system interaction?
  45. What are myofilaments?
    • contain proteins
    • cause contraction and relaxation
  46. What proteins are in myofilaments?
    • myosin
    • actin
  47. What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum do?
    houses intercellular calcium
  48. What does the mitochondria in skeletal muscles do?
    use oxygen to make ATP
  49. What does the T tubule do in skeletal muscles?
    allows neurotransmission to go through the muscle
  50. What does glycogen do in skeletal muscles?
    • energy source stored in muscle
    • drives ATP
  51. What do lipids do in skeletal muscle?
    provide energy
Card Set:
Muscular System
2014-10-06 01:06:59

farm animal anatomy
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