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What is a muscle?
an organ that allows animals to move
What does the muscular system do?
What are the three types of muscles?
How do muscles interact with the cardiac system?
How do muscles interact with the digestive system?
smooth muscles help move things along down the system
What type of movement is used by the skeletal system?
voluntary movement stimulated by the nervous system
Why are muscles striated?
due to myofibrils
functions of the skeletal systems:
- movement of body posture
What type of muscle is the primary muscle of the body?
What type of cells are in skeletal muscle?
How does the brain control the skeletal system?
- a receptor sends a message to the brain that sends the message to the muscle
What type of movement does cardiac muscle have?
- involuntary movement
- has its own pace-maker
What types of muscle are striated?
What type of cells do cardiac muscle have?
branched, single nucleated cells
What do intercalated disks do?
allow continual nerve impulses throughout the muscle
What is the primary tissue of the heart?
What is the function of cardiac muscle?
- heart contractions
- pumps blood into the circulatory system
What type of movement does smooth muscle have?
- controlled by the automatic nervous system
What are pennate muscles?
- feathering of muscle fibers
- make up tendons
What are uni-pennate muscles?
- tendons on a single side of the muscle
- ex: extensor tendon
What type of cells does smooth muscle have?
tapered, single-nucleated cells
What is the function of smooth muscle?
movement in digestive system, eyes and hair
What are bi-pennate muscles?
- have tendons on both sides
- ex: gastrocnemius
What are multi-pennate muscles?
- tendons throughout the muscle
- ex: deltoid
Functions of smooth muscle:
- 99% visceral (digestive system)
- 1% pupil dilation, erector muscles in hair
How are muscles attached?
one end is usually fixed, other end moves towards the fixed end
What is the origin of a muscle?
- fixed end
- proximal orientation
- not much movement
What is the insertion of a muscle?
- moveable end
- distal orientation
Tendons are usually found:
near the insertion point
What does a flexor do?
- closes joint
- causes angulation
What does an extensor do?
- opens joint
- causes straightening
What is an antagonist?
- works against the primary mover
- help prevent over-extension or over-flexion
- ex: tricep
What is the endomysium?
CT around individual muscle fibers
What is the perimysium?
CT around a bundle of muscle fibers
What is the epimysium?
- dense, CT sheet covering a whole muscle
- separates muscles out from adjacent tissue and other muscles
What is a fasicle?
small bundles within a specific muscle
What's inside skeletal muscle?
striated muscle fibers grouped into bundles and surrounded by connective tissue
What kind of junctions cause muscles to contract?
What are myofibrils?
- tiny parallel fibers that are multi-nucleated
- small in diameter but long
What is the sarcolemma?
thin, translucent sheet that surrounds each myofirbril
What is the location for nervous system interaction?
What are myofilaments?
- contain proteins
- cause contraction and relaxation
What proteins are in myofilaments?
What does the sarcoplasmic reticulum do?
houses intercellular calcium
What does the mitochondria in skeletal muscles do?
use oxygen to make ATP
What does the T tubule do in skeletal muscles?
allows neurotransmission to go through the muscle
What does glycogen do in skeletal muscles?
- energy source stored in muscle
- drives ATP
What do lipids do in skeletal muscle?
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