Midterm 1 _Anatomy & Physiology
Card Set Information
Midterm 1 _Anatomy & Physiology
Midterm from learning outcomes
Name the order of increasing complexity the levels of organization that make up the human body
Define the chemical level of organization in an organism
atoms and molecules; organelles
Define the cellular level of organization in an organism
Define the tissue level of organization in an organism
group of similar cells
Define the organ level of organization in an organism
contains two or more types of tissues
Define organ system
organs that work closely together
all organ systems working together
List the 11 organ systems of the body
Name the components of the integumentary system
Name the components of the muscular system
Name the components of the urinary system
Name the components of the skeletal system
name the components of the cardiovascular system
Name the components of the nervous system
name the components of the lymphatic system
red bone marrow
Name the components of the respiratory system
a state of
relatively stable internal conditions
with the body despite changes in the environment
a dynamic state of equilibrium within the body
maintained by contributions of all organs
Describe the homeostatic control mechanism
the system undergoes continuous monitoring and regulation of all variables
performed by the nervous and endocrine systems
Contrast a negative and positive feedback system
negative:reduce the effect of the stimulus
: enhance the effect of a stimulus
provide an example of a negative feedback system in homeostasis
regulation of body temperature (a nervous system mechanism)
provide an example of a positive feedback system in homeostasis
enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin
The 4 major elements that form the body
compare ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds
Define an acid and base
: release hydrogen bonds (H+) into solution
: take up H+ from a solution
3 types of lipids in the cellular membrane and their function
: controls which material passes through the membrane
: cell communication
: membrane integrity
2 types of membrane proteins and their function(s)
: transport proteins, enzymes or receptors
: enzymes, motor proteins(cell division), cell-to-cell connections
Name 6 different functions of cell membrane proteins
Receptor for Signal Transduction
Attachment site for the cytoskeleton and ECM
What is the function of a tight junction?
uses proteins to prevent molecules from passing between the intercellular space between cells
What is the function of desmosomes?
to actor two cells together like a rivet using adhering proteins
What is the function of gap junctions?
connexon proteins for a channel for communication
Define the mechanisms of passive transport
diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration, carrier protein and channel proteins (leakage)
if in inorganic charged molecule was diffusing across the membrane, which pathway of diffusion would this take and why?
Facilitated diffusion. A charged ion is not lipid-soluble. It would require passage through a channel created by a protein to pass through the membrane.
The sodium-potassium pump is an example of this type of transport.
Primary Active Transport
_______ transport often involves cotransport.
diffusion of a solvent (water) through a semi-permeable membrane
Define vesicular transport, the energy source, and types of vesicular transport.
transport of large particles, macromolecules, and fluids across the membrane in membranous sacs.
Endocytosis (pino/phago) & Exocytosis
4 functions of exocytosis
Define Membrane Potential
a voltage that exists throughout all plasma membranes produced by separation of oppositely charged ions by the plasma membrane
3 types of chemical messengers and their general function
: alter the activity of cellular proteins
Cells are surrounded by an extracellular fluid called ______________
state the function of a peroxisome vs a lysosome
: contains reducing enzyme catalase and some oxidases. Function: produce and breakdown H2O2, fatty acid digestion, digest many toxins
: contain digestive enzymes and function to get ride of waste i.e. invading bacteria
Name the function of microtubules
The road to transport for cellular vesicles
support cell and give it shape
Name the function of Microfilaments
rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm that provide structural support or movement. It is part of the cytoskeleton
Name the function of intermediate filaments
protein fibers that form the stable cytoskeleton elements; resist mechanical forces acting on the cell.
function of the smooth ER
site of lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism
Name the function of the Rough ER
externally studded with ribosomes
Cels that make up the epidermis
what is the role of dendritic cells in the epidermis?
phagocytes that are key activators of the immune system
Name the cells in the dermis
fibroblasts, macrophages, some WBC's
Name the layers of the dermis
Name the layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial
The 2 types of sweat glands and their secretions
eccrine sweat glands
: 99% water, metabolic waste
apocrine sweat glands
: sweat, fatty substances and proteins
Compare the functions of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.
Eccrine sweat glands
: function unknown, may be a sexual scent gland
contrast the locations of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands
: everywhere, been in thick skin of palms, soles and forehead
: axillary and anogential areas
6 functions of the Integumentary system
Body temperature regulation
Name the function and location of "peripheral thermoreceptors"
: sensory input to the hypothalamus
Name the function and location of "central thermoreceptors"
: in the core of the body
: sensory input to the hypothalamus
What is the function of sebum and from where is it released?
: an oily secretion that reduces dehydration of the hair and skin; it is bactericidal
Secreted by sebaceous glands
Name the 4 classes of bones and give an example of each
long bones - femur
short bones - talus
flat bones - sternum
irregular bones - vertebra
name the 7 functions of bones
Mineral and growth factor storage
Blood cell formation
Adult long bones typically have red marrow located in where?
in the head of the femur
head of the humerus
___________ cell is a bone cell which is mitotically active.
when stimulated, this bone cell differentiated into an osteoblast
this bone cell is responsible for synthesizing the bone matrix; responsible for bone growth
this bone cell secretes osteoid
this bone cell is located in the lacuna and monitors and maintains he mineralized bone matrix
What is the function of the osteoclast cell? Where is it found?
located in the periosteum and the endosteum
Describe the chemical composition of bone
: cells and osteoid ( ground substance and collagen fibers which provide flexibility and strength)
: hydroxyapatites (mineral salts mainly calcium phosphate crystals; responsible for hardness and resistance to compression)
2 types of bone development
define intramembranous ossification
bone develops from a fibrous connective tissue membrane
forms flat bones
define endochondral ossification
a bone forms by replacing a hyaline cartilage model of the final bone
forms most bones