Midterm 1 _Anatomy & Physiology

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Midterm 1 _Anatomy & Physiology
2014-10-08 22:41:35

Midterm from learning outcomes
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  1. Name the order of increasing complexity the levels of organization that make up the human body
    • CCTOOO
    • Chemical level
    • Cellular Level
    • Tissue Level
    • Organ
    • Organ system
    • Organism
  2. Define the chemical level of organization in an organism
    atoms and molecules; organelles
  3. Define the cellular level of organization in an organism
  4. Define the tissue level of organization in an organism
    group of similar cells
  5. Define the organ level of organization in an organism
    contains two or more types of tissues
  6. Define organ system
    organs that work closely together
  7. Define organism
    all organ systems working together
  8. List the 11 organ systems of the body
    • Muscular
    • Urinary 
    • Skeletal
    • Integumentary
    • Cardiovascular 
    • Lymphatic System
    • Endocrine
    • Nervous 
    • Digestive
    • Respiratory 
    • Reproductive (male/female)
  9. Name the components of the integumentary system
    • hair
    • Nails
    • Skin
  10. Name the components of the muscular system
    skeletal muscle
  11. Name the components of the urinary system
    • urinary bladder
    • kidneys
    • urethra
    • ureter
  12. Name the components of the skeletal system
    • joints
    • bones
  13. name the components of the cardiovascular system
    • Blood vessels 
    • heart
  14. Name the components of the nervous system
    • brain
    • spinal cord
    • nerves
  15. name the components of the lymphatic system
    • lymph nodes
    • spleen
    • thymus
    • red bone marrow
    • thoracic duct
  16. Name the components of the respiratory system
    • Nasal cavity
    • pharynx
    • larynx
    • trachea
    • lung
    • bronchus
  17. Define Homeostasis
    • a state of relatively stable internal conditions with the body despite changes in the environment 
    • a dynamic state of equilibrium within the body
    • maintained by contributions of all organs
  18. Describe the homeostatic control mechanism
    • the system undergoes continuous monitoring and regulation of all variables
    • performed by the nervous and endocrine systems
  19. Contrast a negative and positive feedback system
    • negative:reduce the effect of the stimulus
    • positive: enhance the effect of a stimulus
  20. provide an example of a negative feedback system in homeostasis
    regulation of body temperature (a nervous system mechanism)
  21. provide an example of a positive feedback system in homeostasis
    enhancement of labor contractions by oxytocin
  22. The 4 major elements that form the body
    • Carbon 
    • nitrogen
    • oxygen
    • hydrogen
  23. compare ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonds
    chemical bonds
  24. Define an acid and base
    • Acid: release hydrogen bonds (H+) into solution
    • Base: take up H+ from a solution
  25. 3 types of lipids in the cellular membrane and their function
    • Phospholipids: controls which material passes through the membrane
    • Glycolipids: cell communication
    • Cholesterol: membrane integrity
  26. 2 types of membrane proteins and their function(s)
    • Integral: transport proteins, enzymes or receptors 
    • Peripheral: enzymes, motor proteins(cell division), cell-to-cell connections
  27. Name 6 different functions of cell membrane proteins
    • Transport
    • Receptor for Signal Transduction
    • Attachment site for the cytoskeleton and ECM
    • Enzymatic Activity 
    • Intracellular joining 
    • Cell-to-cell recognition
  28. What is the function of a tight junction?
    uses proteins to prevent molecules from passing between the intercellular space between cells
  29. What is the function of desmosomes?
    to actor two cells together like a rivet using adhering proteins
  30. What is the function of gap junctions?
    connexon proteins for a channel for communication
  31. Define the mechanisms of passive transport
    diffusion, facilitated diffusion, osmosis, filtration, carrier protein and channel proteins (leakage)
  32. if in inorganic charged molecule was diffusing across the membrane, which pathway of diffusion would this take and why?
    Facilitated diffusion. A charged ion is not lipid-soluble. It would require passage through a channel created by a protein to pass through the membrane.
  33. The sodium-potassium pump is an example of this type of transport.
    Primary Active Transport
  34. _______ transport often involves cotransport.
  35. define osmosis
    diffusion of a solvent (water) through a semi-permeable membrane
  36. Define vesicular transport, the energy source, and types of vesicular transport.
    • transport of large particles, macromolecules, and fluids across the membrane in membranous sacs. 
    • ATP
    • Endocytosis (pino/phago) & Exocytosis
  37. 4 functions of exocytosis
    • Hormone secretion
    • Neurotransmitter release
    • Mucus secretion 
    • Waste excretion
  38. Define Membrane Potential
    a voltage that exists throughout all plasma membranes produced by separation of oppositely charged ions by the plasma membrane
  39. 3 types of chemical messengers and their general function
    • Neurotransmitters
    • Hormones
    • Paracrines
    • Function: alter the activity of cellular proteins
  40. Cells are surrounded by an extracellular fluid called ______________
    interstitial fluid
  41. state the function of a peroxisome vs a lysosome
    • peroxisome: contains reducing enzyme catalase and some oxidases. Function: produce and breakdown H2O2, fatty acid digestion, digest many toxins
    • Lysosome: contain digestive enzymes and function to get ride of waste i.e. invading bacteria
  42. Name the function of microtubules
    • Flagella 
    • Cilia 
    • centrioles 
    • The road to transport for cellular vesicles 
    • cell division
    • support cell and give it shape
  43. Name the function of Microfilaments
    • rod of actin protein in the cytoplasm that provide structural support or movement. It is part of the cytoskeleton
    • muscular contraction
  44. Name the function of intermediate filaments
    protein fibers that form the stable cytoskeleton elements; resist mechanical forces acting on the cell.
  45. function of the smooth ER
    • site of lipid and steroid synthesis, lipid metabolism 
    • drug detoxification
  46. Name the function of the Rough ER
    • externally studded with ribosomes
    • phospholipid synthesis
  47. Cels that make up the epidermis
    • keratinocytes
    • melanocytes
    • dendritic cells
    • tactile cells
  48. what is the role of dendritic cells in the epidermis?
    phagocytes that are key activators of the immune system
  49. Name the cells in the dermis
    • fibroblasts, macrophages, some WBC's
    • nerve fibers
    • blood vessels 
    • lymph nodes
    • sweat glands
  50. Name the layers of the dermis
    • Papillary layer
    • reticular layer
  51. Name the layers of the epidermis from deep to superficial
    • Stratum Basale 
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Granulosum
    • Stratum corneum
  52. The 2 types of sweat glands and their secretions
    • eccrine sweat glands: 99% water, metabolic waste 
    • apocrine sweat glands: sweat, fatty substances and proteins
  53. Compare the functions of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands.
    • Eccrine sweat glands: thermoregulation
    • Apocrine: function unknown, may be a sexual scent gland
  54. contrast the locations of eccrine and apocrine sweat glands
    • Eccrine: everywhere, been in thick skin of palms, soles and forehead
    • Apocine: axillary and anogential areas
  55. 6 functions of the Integumentary system
    • Body temperature regulation
    • Blood reservoir 
    • Cutaneous sensation
    • Protection
    • Excretion
    • Metabolic functions
  56. Name the function and location of "peripheral thermoreceptors"
    • location: skin
    • function: sensory input to the hypothalamus
  57. Name the function and location of "central thermoreceptors"
    • Location: in the core of the body
    • function: sensory input to the hypothalamus
  58. What is the function of sebum and from where is it released?
    • function: an oily secretion that reduces dehydration of the hair and skin; it is bactericidal 
    • Secreted by sebaceous glands
  59. Name the 4 classes of bones and give an example of each
    • long bones - femur
    • short bones - talus
    • flat bones - sternum
    • irregular bones - vertebra
  60. name the 7 functions of bones
    • Support
    • Protection
    • Movement
    • Mineral and growth factor storage
    • Blood cell formation
    • Triglyceride Storage
    • Hormone Production
  61. Adult long bones typically have red marrow located in where?
    • in the head of the femur 
    • head of the humerus
  62. ___________ cell is a bone cell which is mitotically active.
  63. when stimulated, this bone cell differentiated into an osteoblast
    osteogenic cell
  64. this bone cell is responsible for synthesizing the bone matrix; responsible for bone growth
  65. this bone cell secretes osteoid
  66. this bone cell is located in the lacuna and monitors and maintains he mineralized bone matrix
  67. What is the function of the osteoclast cell? Where is it found?
    • Bone-resorbing cell
    • located in the periosteum and the endosteum
  68. Describe the chemical composition of bone
    • Organic: cells and osteoid ( ground substance and collagen fibers which provide flexibility and strength)
    • Inorganic: hydroxyapatites (mineral salts mainly calcium phosphate crystals; responsible for hardness and resistance to compression)
  69. 2 types of bone development
    • endochondral ossification 
    • intramembranous ossification
  70. define intramembranous ossification
    • bone develops from a fibrous connective tissue membrane 
    • forms flat bones
  71. define endochondral ossification
    • a bone forms by replacing a hyaline cartilage model of the final bone
    • forms most bones