Cognition exam 2a part 1
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Describe what short-term memory is?
a temporary memory store for information that is currently in awarness
Miller's framework results
a memory span task that found that memory has a limited capacity of 7 items +/- 2
Describe what recording/chunking is
the process of grouping items together (creating chunks), and then remembering the newly formed groups (chunks)
Describe what decay is
forgetting is caused simply by the passage of time
older material interferes with recollection of current stimulus
newer material interferes with recollection of older items (your current phone number interferes with your ability to remember your ability to remember your childhood home number)
Why short-term memory is considered a bottleneck?
short-term memory is a bottleneck because a lot of sensory register has to go through a short attention span, thus coming up with the 7 +/- 2 approach (has a limited capacity) until it reaches long-term memory
Why recoding/chunking makes it possible to hold more information in short-term memory
due to clever recording strategies that make it possible to hold its information
Describe how the Brown-Peterson task works and what it investigates
3-letter stimulus followed by 3-digit number and start counting backwards by 3's.
Then after some backwards counting, report the 3-letter stimulus
How well you can rehearse that information without thinking about the three letters
Explain the two different ways in which results from the Brown-Peterson task have been interpreted
results were interpreted through the definition of decay, and through retroactive inference
Explain the cause of the primacy effect
accuracy of recall for the early list positions
Normally quite high, thanks to rehearsal and encoding into long-term memory can be changed by giving more or less time for rehearsal
Explain the cause of the recency effect
accuracy of recall for the final latest list positions
Normally high, thanks to availability and recall from short-term memory, and can be changed by giving more or less distractions/interference
Serial position curve
How well do we do on recalling items on a list depending on the position on the list (in our short-term memory)
The difference between the forgetting of rehearsal and non-rehearsed information and how interference, primacy, and recency effects fit in this context
In non-rehearsal, the problem is with interference
In rehearsal, if the amount of information is 7+/- 2, then the information stays there
However, if it is more, the information goes away, and then you will forget the information in the middle (serial position curve), and either have the primacy effect or the recency effect
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