COMG mid term

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  1. Every time you speak in front of an audience, there is an opportunity for change
  2. Similarities between public speaking and conversation
    • organize thoughts logically
    • tailor or message to the audience
    • can tell a story for impact
    • always adapting to listener feedback
  3. differences between public speaking and conversation
    • Public Speaking is more highly structured
    • no interruptions and specific goal needs to be reached
    • Public speaking requires formal language
    • Public speaking requires different method of delivery
  4. Speech communication process
    • speaker
    • listener
    • message
    • channel
    • feedback
    • interference
    • situation
  5. Speaker
    the person who is presenting an oral message to a listener
  6. message
    whatever a speaker communicates to someone else
  7. Channel
    the means by which a message is communicated
  8. listener
    the person who receives the speaker's message
  9. frame of reference
    the sum of a person's knowledge, experience, goals, values, and attitudes. No two people can have exactly the same frame of reference
  10. feedback
    the messages, usually nonverbal, sent from a listener to a speaker
  11. interference
    anything that impedes the communication of a message. Can be external or internal to listeners
  12. situation
    the time and place in which speech communication occurs
  13. Speech making becomes more complex as cultural diversity increases
  14. ethnocentrism
    The belief that one's own group or culture is superior to all other groups or cultures
  15. How to avoid ethnocentrism
    • think about your audience
    • put yourself in listener's place
    • be alert to feedback
    • avoid ethnocentrism as a listener
  16. Public Speaking Anxiety
    Fear or anxiety associated with actual or anticipated communication with an audience
  17. what makes us nervous?
    • lack of positive experience
    • feeling different 
    • being the center of attention
  18. stages of anxiety
    • prepreparation
    • preparation
    • pre-performance
    • performance
  19. developing confidence
    • acquire speaking experience
    • prepare, prepare, prepare
    • think positively
    • use power of visualization
    • don't expect perfection
  20. ethics
    branch of philosophy that handles right and wrong affairs
  21. ethical speaking guidelines
    • make ethically sound goals
    • be fully prepared for each speech
    • be honest
    • avoid name calling 
    • avoid egocentrism
    • put principles into practice
  22. global plagiarism
    copying everything form something else
  23. patchwork
    taking ideas and language verbatim from 2 to 3 sources
  24. Incremental
    Failing to give credit for specific parts of speech borrowed from others
  25. ethical obligations for listeners
    • be courteous and attentive
    • avoid prejudging the speaker
    • maintain free and open expression of ideas
  26. hearing
    physiological process
  27. listening
    psychological process
  28. appreciative listening
    listening for pleasure or enjoyment
  29. causes of poor listening
    • not concentrating
    • listening too hard
    • jumping to conclusions
    • focusing on delivery
  30. becoming a better listener
    • take listening seriously 
    • be an active listener
    • resist distractions
    • don't be diverted by delivery 
    • suspend judgement
    • focus your listening
    • develop note-taking skills
  31. general purpose
    • to pesuade
    • to inform
    • to commemorate
    • to introduce
    • to entertain
  32. selecting a topic
    • take personal inventory
    • clustering
    • reference
    • internet search
  33. specific purpose
    • "why are we here"
    • single infinitive phrase
    • states what speaker hopes to accomplish
  34. central idea
    • specifically state each main point
    • one sentence that encapsulates major ideas of speech
  35. Audience analysis is very necessary
  36. every effective speaker is audience centered
    • to whom am i speaking
    • what do i want them to know feel believe
    • what is the most effective way of composing my speech to achieve that
  37. Demographic AAQ
    • Age 
    • gender
    • sexual orientation
    • racial, ethnic, cultural background
    • group membership
  38. three types of AAQ questions
    • fixed alternative 
    • scale questions
    • open ended
  39. planning
    preparation, incubation, illumination, refinement
  40. how to avoid common planning pitfalls
    • give yourself time for incubation
    • allow a margin of error
    • work through writer's block
    • practice orally to avoid speaker's block
  41. What is the goal of speaking to inform
    goal is to enhance audiences knowledge of the topic
  42. effective informative speeches
    • information should be communicated clearly and accurately 
    • it should be made meaningful and interesting
  43. characteristics of informative speeches
    • intellectually stimulating
    • relevant
    • creative
    • memorable
    • diverse learning styles
  44. guidelines for informative speech
    • don't overestimate audience knowledge
    • relate information to the audience
    • don't be too technical 
    • avoid abstractions
    • personalize ideas
  45. why use examples to support ideas
    Clarify ideas

        Reinforce ideas

        Personalize ideas

    •     Make examples vivid, richly
    • textured

    •     Practice delivery to enhance
    • extended examples
  46. Statistics to support ideas
    • Use
    • reliable sources

        Use to quantify ideas

        Use sparingly

        Identify Sources

        Explain thoroughly

        Round off appropriately

        Use visual aids if needed
  47. chronological order
    a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a time pattern
  48. topical order
    a method of speech organization in which the main points divide the topic into logical and consistent subtopics
  49. brainstorming
    a method of generating ideas for speech topics by free association of words and ideas
  50. formulating the specific purpose
    • full phrase not fragment
    • express it as a statement not as a question
    • avoid figurative language in your purpose statement
    • limit to one distinct idea
  51. residual message
    what a speaker wants the audience to remember after it has forgotten everything else in a speech
  52. ways of brainstorming
    • personal inventory
    • clustering
    • internet search
  53. audience centeredness
    keeping the audience foremost in mind at every step of speech preparation and presentation
  54. identification
    a process n which speakers seek to create a bond with the audience by emphasizing common values, goals, and experiences
  55. stereotyping
    creating an oversimplified image of a particular group of people, usually by assuming that all members of the group are alike
  56. attitude
    a frame of mind in favor of or opposed to a person, policy, belief, institution. etc
  57. fixed alternative quesitions
    questions that offer a fixed choice between two or more alternatives
  58. supporting materials
    examples, statistics, and testimony
  59. brief example
    a specific case referred to in passing to illustrate a point
  60. extended example
    a story, narrative, or anecdote developed at some length to illustrate a point.
  61. hypothetical examples
    an example that describes an imaginary or fictitious situation
  62. strategic organization
    putting together in a particular way to achieve a particular result with a particular audience
  63. spatial order
    a method of speech organization in which the main points follow a directional pattern
  64. causal order
    A method of speech organization in which the main points show a cause- effect relationship
  65. internal preview
    statement in the body of the speech that lets the audience know what the speaker is going to discuss next
  66. internal summary
    a statement in the body of the speech that summarizes the speaker's preceding point or points
  67. signpost
    a very brief statement that indicates where a speaker is in the speech or that focuses on key ideas
Card Set
COMG mid term
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