MICRO TEST 2

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
285009
Filename:
MICRO TEST 2
Updated:
2014-10-06 23:45:10
Tags:
MICRO
Folders:
BIOLOGY
Description:
MICRO SECOND TEST
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  1. METABOLISM FUNCTION AND REQUIREMENTS
    • FUNCTION- TO REPRODUCE ORGANISMS
    • REQUIRES- ENERGY FROM LIGHT OR CATABOLISM OF NUTRIENTS
    • ENERGY STORED IN ATP
  2. CATABOLISM FUNCTIONS
    • TO FORM PRECURSOR METABOLITES
    • TO BREAK LARGER MOLECULES INTO SMALLER MOLECULES
    • *EXERGONIC
  3. MACROMOLECULES
    • ENZYMES PLUS ATP
    • CAUSE CELLS TO GROW AND REPRODUCE
  4. ANABOLIC
    • SYNTHESISE LARGER MOLECULES FROM PRODUCTS OF CATABOLISM
    • *ENDERGONIC
  5. OXIDATION-REDUCTION
    • ELECTRON TRANSFER FROM E- DONOR TO ACCEPTOR
    • ALWAYS HAPPEN TOGETHER
    • USE E- CARRIERS OFTER H+
    • NAD+
    • NADP+
    • FADH2
  6. NAD+
    NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
  7. NADH2+
    • NICOTINAMIDE ADENINE DIPHOSPHATE
    • FROM FIRST 3
    • GIVES 30 ATP
  8. FLAVINE ADENINE DINUCLEOTIDE
    • FADH2
    • MADE IN KREBS GIVE 4 ATP
  9. WHAT IS MOST IMPORTANT IN FIRST 3 STAGES OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION
    • PRODUCTION OF NADH2 AND FADH2
    • 10 NADH2 AND 2 FADH2
  10. WHICH IS MORE IMPORTANT AND WHY NADH2 OR FADH2
    NADH2 BECUASE IT GIVES OFF 3 ATP/ MOLECULE
  11. HOLOENZYME
    ACTIVE SITE+INORGANIC COFACTOR+ COENYMES (ORGANIC COFACTOR)+ APOENZYME(PROTEIN)
  12. GLYCOLYSIS
    • IN CYTOPLASM
    • GLUCOSE IN
    • 2 NADH2, 2 ATP, 2 PYRUVIC ACID
  13. TRANSITION CYCLE
    • CYTOPLAM, 2 ROUNDS
    • 2 PYRUVIC ACID IN
    • 2 NADH2,2ACETYL-COENZYME-A, 2 CO2
  14. KREBS CYCLE
    • CYTOSOL
    • 2ACETYL-COENZYME-A IN
    • 4NADH2, 2FADH2, 2 ATP,4 CO2
  15. ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN
    • CYTOPLASMIC MEMBRANE
    • NADH2 FADH2 IN
    • 34 ATP
  16. PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY
    GLUCOSE+PHOSPHATE= NITROGEN BASE NUCLEOTIDES
  17. ENTNER-DOUDOROFF PATHWAY
    USES DIFFERENT ENZYMES ONLY PRODUCES 1 ATP
  18. CELLULAR RESPIRATION EQUATION
    C6H12O6+602=6CO2+6H2O+38ATP
  19. LACTIC ACID EQUATION
    C6H12O6=2C3H6O3+2ATP+2NADH
  20. ETHEL ALCOHOL
    C6H12O6=2C3H5OH+2CO2+2ATP+NADH2
  21. PLASMIDS
    • 3-3000 GENES
    • NOT ESSENTIAL BC THEY MAY NOT HAVE THEM OR MAY LOOSE THEM
    • FERTILITY FACTORS
    • RESISTANCE FACTORS
    • BACTERIOCIN FACTORS
    • VIRULENCE PLASMIDS
  22. HOW MANY BACTERIAL GENOMES
    3000-4000
  23. F FACTOR
    • FERTILITY
    • GENE ALLOWING PLASMID TO TRANSFER. CODES FOR PILLI
  24. R FACTOR
    • RESISTANCE
    • RESISTANCE TO ANTI-BIOTICS AND HEAVY METALS
  25. BACTERIOCIN
    PROTIENS RELEASED TO KILL OTHER CELLS
  26. VIRULENCE PLASMIDS
    CODE FOR GENES THAT MAKE AN ORGANISM VIRALANT
  27. WHY ARE MUTATIONS HARMFUL
    THEY CHANGE PROTEINS
  28. POINT MUTATION
    • 1 BASE PAIR AFFECTED
    • INSERTIONS, DELETIONS, SUBSTITUTIONS
  29. FRAMESHIFT MUTATION
    NUCLEOTIDE TRIPLITS AFTER MUTATION ARE DISPLACE
  30. NUCLEOTIDE ANALOGS
    • DISRUPTS DNA AND RNA GIVING CELL WRONG NITROGEN BASE TO STOP PRODUCTION
    • (CANCER TREATMENT
  31. HORIZONTAL GENE TRANSFER
    • TRANSFER FROM 1 CELL TO ANOTHER
    • 3 TYPES TRANSFORMATION, TRANSDUCTION, BACTERIAL CONJUGATION
  32. VERTICAL GENE TRANSFER
    FROM PARENTS TO OFF SPRING
  33. AMES TEST
    • DETERMINES MUTAGENIC CHEMICALS
    • USES HISTODINE-SALMONELLA
    • BACK MUTATION
    • IF CHEMICAL SHOWS GROWTH MUTATION CHANGES HIS- TO HIS+
  34. POSITIVE SELECTION
    • PENICILLIN RESISTAN AND SENSITIVE CELLS
    • PLATE OUT AND GET ONLY PENICILLIN RESISTANCS FROM MEDIUM W/ PEN
    • ADD TO BROTH ATT MUTAGE PLATE OUT.
    • MORE GROWTH ON MEDIUM W/ PEN
  35. INDIRECT SELECTION
    • USES MEDIUM W/ AND W/O TRYPTOPHAN
    • STAMP FROM A COMPLETE MEDIUM TO ANOTHER COMPLETE AND ONE LACKIN TRYPTOPHAN
    • TRYPTOPHAN AUXOTROPHS CANT GROWN ON LACKING
  36. TRANSFORMATION
    • CELLS ARE COMPETENT
    • DISCOVERED BY GRIFFITH
    • MECHANISM ID'D BY AVERY AND MCCARTY
  37. GRIFFITH
    • LIVE CELLS W/ CAPSULE KILLED MOUSE
    • HEATED DEAD CELLS MOUSE LIVED
    • LIVE CELLS W/O CAPSULE MOUSE LIVED
    • LIVE W/O CAPSULE+ HEATED DEAD (S)CELLS= CAPSULED LIVE CELLS(S)
  38. AVERY MCCARTY
    • DNA BROKEN INTO PIECES
    • DNA FROM DEAD (S) TOOK DNA FROM LIVING (R)
    • CELLS ACQUIRED ABILLITY TO SYNTHESIZE CAPSULES
  39. TRANSDUCTION
    • GENERALIZED- TRANSDUCING PHAGE CARRIES RANDOM DNA TO RECIPIENT
    • SPECIALIZED- ONLY CERTAIN DNA IS TRANSFERRED
  40. TRANSPOSONS
    • SEGMENT OF DNA MOVING FROM ONE PLACE TO ANOTHER IN SAME OR DIFFERENT MOLECULE
    • RESULTS IN A FRAMESHIFT INSERTION
    • ALL CONTAIN PALINDROMIC SEQENCES AT EACH END
    • SIMPLE- NO MORE THAN 2 INVERTED REPEATS AND A GENE FOR TRANSPOSASE
    • COMPLEX- 1 OR MORE GENES NOT CONNECTED WITH TRANSPOSITION
  41. TEST
    TEST
  42. PHOTOAUTOTROPHS
    • USE LIGHT AND GET CO2 FROM CARBON DIOXIDE
    • PLANTS, ALGAE, CYANOBACTERIA
  43. PHOTOHETEROTROPHS
    • USE LIGHT AND GET CARBON FROM OTHER SOURCES
    • GREEN/PURPLE
    • NONSULFER BACTERIA AND SOME ARCHAEA
  44. CHEMOAUTOTROPHS
    • CHEMICAL COMPOUNDS FOR ENERGY
    • CARBON COMES FROM CO2
    • HYDROGEN,SULFUR, NITRIFYING BATERIA, SOME ARCHAEA
  45. CHEMOHETEROTROPHS
    • CHEM COMPOUNDS FOR ENERGY
    • ORGANIC COMPOUNDS FOR CARBON
    • AEROBIC RESPIRATION:MOST ANIMALS
    • ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION, SOME ANIMALS
    • FERMINTATION : YEAST
  46. OBLIGATE AEROBES
    • O2 IS ESSINTIAL
    • TOP TOWARDS O2
    • PSUEDOMONUS
  47. ABLIGATE ANAEROBES
    • O2 IS DEADLY
    • BOTTOM AWAY FROM O2
    • CLOSTRIDIUM
  48. TOXIC O2
    • HIGHLY REACTIVE
    • GREAT OXIDIZING AGENTS
    • DAMAGE DNA
  49. SINGLET O2
    • ELECTRON HUNGRY
    • DAMAGES DNA
  50. SUPEROXIDE RADICALS
    • CHARGED FORMS OF O2
    • 7 OR MORE E- IN OUTER SHELL
  51. PEROXIDE ANION
    HIGHLY ACTIVE
  52. HYDROXYL RADICAL
    HIGHLY REACTIVE
  53. FACILITATIVE ANEROBES
    • CAN LIVE WITHOUT O2 BUT PREFER IT
    • E. COLI
  54. AEROTOLERANT ANAEROBES
    DONT USE O2 BUT IT DOESNT HARM THEM
  55. MICROAEROPHILES
    LOVE A LITTLE BIT OF O2
  56. NITROGEN SOURCES
    • ORGANIC AND INORGANIC NUTRIENTS (NO3, NO2, NH4)
    • RECYCLED NITROGEN FROM AMINO ACIDS AND NUCLEOTIDES
    • NITROGEN FIXATION, RHIZOBIUM (SOYBEANS)
  57. FLUID THIOGLYCOLATE MEDIUM
    TESTS FOR O2 IN A CELL
  58. OTHER NUTRIENTS BESIDES N AND O2
    • PHOSPORUS
    • SULFER
    • TRACE ELEMENTS
    • GROWTH FACTORS (ORGANIC CHEMS NOT SYTHESIZED BY CERTAIN ORGANISMS
  59. EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE
    • PROTEINS
    • MEMBRANES- LOW= RIGID, FRAGILE-- HIGH=FLUID
    • ORGANELLES
  60. PSYCHROPHILES
    • -5--20 DEGREE CELCIUS
    • PEAK AT 10
  61. MESOPHILES
    • 15-45
    • PEAK AT AROUND 35
  62. THERMOPHILES
    • 42-80
    • PEAK AROUND 65
  63. HYPERTHERMOPHILES
    • 65-105
    • PEAK AROUND 95
  64. PH REQUIREMENTS
    • ORGANISMS ARE SENSITIVE TO CHANGES IN ACIDITY
    • H+ AND OH- INTERFERE WITH H BONDING
  65. NEUTROPHILES
    GROW BEST IN A NARROW RANGE AROUND NEUTRAL PH
  66. ACIDOPHILES
    • GROW BEST IN ACIDIC HABITATS
    • TAR CREEK
  67. ALKALINOPHILES
    LIVE IN ALKALINE SOILS AND WATER
  68. OSMOTIC PRESSURE
    PRESSURE EXERTED ON A SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE BY A SOLUTION CONTAINING SOLUTES THAT CANT FREELY PASS MEMBRANE
  69. HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
    WATER EXERTS PRESSURE IN PROPORTION TO ITS DEPTH
  70. BAROPHILES
    • LIVE IN EXTREME PRESSURE
    • MEMBRANES AND ENZYMES DEPEND ON PRESSURE TO MAINTAIN THEIR SHAPE
  71. ANTAGONISTIC RELATIONSHIP
    DONT LIVE WELL TOGETHER
  72. SYNERGISTIC
    LIVE TOGETHER BUT NO DEPENDENCY
  73. SYMBIOTIC
    DEPENDENCY
  74. BIOFILMS
    • COMPLEX RELATIONSHIPS AMONG MANY MICROORGANISMS
    • FORM BC OF QUORUM SENSING, TELLS OTHER CELLS TO INCREASE METOBOLIC RATE, NITROGEN INCREASE TELLS CELLS TO INCREASE NITROGEN FIXATION
  75. DEFINED MEDIA
    KNOW ALL INGREDIENTS AND IS A FIXED RECIPE
  76. COMPLEX MEDIA
    TSA, TSB
  77. SELECTIVE MEDIA
    • USED TO DISCOURAGE GROWTH OF SOME, INCOURAGE OTHERS
    • SABAROS DEXTROSE AGAR- FOR MOLDS
    • ESINE METHALANE BLUE- DISCOURAGES GRAM+
  78. DIFFERENTIAL
    VISIBLE INTERACTION BETWEEN ORGANISMS AND MEDIA
  79. PRESERVING CULTRURES
    • REFRIGERATION-STORES FOR SHORT PERIODS OF TIME
    • DEEP-FREEZING--STORES FOR YEARS
    • LYOPHILIZATION-STORES FOR DECADES
  80. BINNARY FISSION
    • CHROMOSOME REPLICATES
    • SEPTUM FORMED AND COMPLETED
    • CELL BECOMES 2 AND REPEASES EVERY 30 MINUTES
  81. ARITHMETICAL, AND LOGARITHMIC GROWTH
    • ARITH- INCREASES BY SAME AMOUNT IN SAME PERIODS OF TIME
    • LOG STARTS SMALL AND GETS BIGGER
  82. MICROBIAL GROWTH CURVE
    LAG PHASE UP (LOG PHASE) TO STATIONARY PHASE DOWN(DEATH PHASE)
  83. DIRECT MEASURING METHODS
    • DILUTION AND PLATE COUNTS
    • MEMBRANE FILTRATION (.45 MIKES TO FILTER BACTERIA OUT)
    • MOST PROBABLE NUMBER
    • MICROSCOPIC COUNTS
    • ELECTRONIC COUNTERS
  84. INDIRECT METHOD OF MEASURING MICROBE GROWTH
    • USED IN HOSPITALS TO TEST BLOOD, DOESNT GIVE SPECIFIC NUMBER FOR HOW MANY CELLS
    • METABOLIC ACTIVITY- MEASURES SUBSTANCES USED
    • DRY WEIGHT-BEST FOR MOLDS
    • TURBIDITY- USES SPECTROPHOTOMETER
  85. GENETIC METHODS OF MEASUIRNG MICROBE REPRODUCTION
    • ISOLATE DNA SEQUENCES OF UNCULTURABLES
    • USED TO ESTIMATE NUMBER
  86. GENERATION TIME
    • TIME REQUIRED FOR BACTERIAL CELL TO GROW AND DIVIDE
    • DEPENDENT ON CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL CONDITIONS
  87. CHEMOSTAT
    LIQUID MEDIUM IS CONSTANTLY ADDED AT DIFFERENT RATES TO MEASURE GROWTH OF A MICROBE IN THIS CHANGING ENVIRONMENT

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