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2014-10-06 15:57:41

Biomechanic portion of the course, midterm 1
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  1. Name this guy: (1564-1642)math, physic, astronomy, acceleration, inertia, projectile trajectory, balance and leverage.
    Galileo Galilei
  2. Name this guy: (1608-1679), Math, physics, anatomy, father of modern kinesiology, application of levers to body segments, muscular contraction. Human locomotion, force and external resistors.
    Giovanni A. Borelli
  3. Name this guy: Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy
    Isaac Newton
  4. Name this guy: correlation of ground reaction force with movement. dynamometric table, rifle camera, modern cinecamera, modern day motion analysis.
    Jules Marey
  5. Name this guy: images documenting movement, lacked scientific methodology.
    Eadweard Muybridge
  6. What are the non-invasive techniques used by biomechanics analysis?
    • movement analysis system:
    • video cameras, optoelectronic, accelerometers.  
    • Dynamic analysis system:
    • platform strength, isokinetic ergometer
    • Electromyography (EMG):
    • using surface electrodes.
  7. What are the other fields of application of moderne age biomechanical analysis?
    Game design, rehabilitation (analysis of motor disorders, prevention of back pain...)
  8. What are the goals of Biomechanics in Kinesiology?
    • Understanding of movement: kinematics, kinetics. 
    • Sport technique analysis and performance improvement.
    • Development of sport equipment: performance and security.
  9. Kinematics
    describes the spatial and timing characteristics of motion of the human body and its segments
  10. Kinetics
    Focuses on various forces that cause a movement (internal and external)
  11. Internal forces
    Forces generated by muscles pulling on bones via their tendons or bone-to-bone forces exerted across joint surfaces. They cause movement.
  12. External forces
    forces acting from without (gravity) or from any body contact with the ground, environment, sport equipment or opponent. They affect total movement.
  13. Name the kinematic variables
    Time, displacement, velocity and acceleration.
  14. Displacement
    the length of straight line joining the start to finish points
  15. Angular displacement (θ)
    direction of and smallest angular change between the initial and final position of the rotating body (°)
  16. Velocity (v)
    • Displacement per time unit (m/s, km/s)
    • V = d / t
  17. Angular velocity
    Angular displacement per time unit
  18. Acceleration
    • Rate of change of velocity (increase or decrease in speed) (m/s2) 
    • A = Δv / t
  19. Angular acceleration
    change in angular velocity per unit of time
  20. What are the 3 simplified biomechanical models of human motion analysis?
    Particle Model, Stick Figure Model, Rigid Segment Body Model
  21. Approximate body segment positions, their connection and size. Multiple force vector can be drawn of the free body diagram. Good for gross motor skills in 2D. No longitudinal rotations or body twisting.
    Stick Figure Model
  22. 3D analysis. Each body segment is represented as an irregularly shaped 3D volume.
    Rigid Segment Body Model.
  23. What are the steps of analysis?
    1-Identify the system to be studied; isolate the object of analysis form its surroundings. 2-Identify the frame of reference (coordinate system) in which the movement takes place (e.g., a runner changes his position relative to the ground). 3-Identify the type of motion that is occurring, the body planes in which the movement takes place (sagittal, frontal and transverse) and the axis of rotation