Cancer

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
285037
Filename:
Cancer
Updated:
2014-10-06 16:09:58
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major
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Description:
exam 2
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  1. Laboratory Blood Tests for Cancer
    Hemoglobin/Hematocrit
    •  
    • Male 14-18g/dl
    • Female 12-15 g/dl
    •  
    • Male 40-50 ml/dl
    • Female 37-42 ml/dl
    • **Decreased levels with anemia. Can indicate a malignancy**
  2. Laboratory Blood Tests for Cancer
    Leukocytes (WBC)
    • 5000-10,000cu mm
    • **Inc. levels with leukemia and lymphoma**
    • **Dec. levels in bone marrow cancer**
  3. Laboratory Blood Tests for Cancer
    Acid phosphatase
    • 0.3-12 UL
    • **Inc.with metastatic prostate cancer. Used to monitor bone & prostate cancer**
  4. Laboratory Blood Tests for Cancer
    Alkaline phosphatase
    • 50-120 UL
    • **Inc. with cancer of liver, bone, lung & pancrease**
  5. Types of Radiation
    External
    • ◦Teletherapy
    • ◦outside the body.
    • ◦Maximum effect occurs deep in body.
    • ◦Gamma Knife Surgery
    • >radio active beams, seizures, edema surrounding tissues
  6. Types of radiation
    Internal
    • ◦Brachytherapy
    • ◦Radioisotopes placed into or near tumor.
    • >main effect is to tumor it self
    • ◦Fewer normal cells exposed.
    • ◦High dose to localized area.
  7. Types of radiation
    Internal Brachytherapy Sealed X2 vs. Unsealed source
    • Sealed Source (localized)
    • a.Intracavity: radioisotope placed in
    • the body cavity and left in place for a specific timeframe.
    • >Person becomes radioactive
    • b.Interstitial: radioisotope can be placed
    • in beads, needles, seeds or catheter and placed directly into tumor. May be temporary or permanent.
    • Unsealed Source (systemic)
    • a.Unsealed Systemic: radioisotopes may be
    • administered via IV or fluid can be instilled directly into body cavity. Also can be PO. Pts can release radiation. Amount will depend on type of radioisotope used.
    • >only targets cancer cells
  8. Alkylating Agents
    • •Leukeran
    • •Mustargan
    • •Platinol (frequently seen)
    • >s/e bone marrow suppress, renal toxicity


    • ◦Nursing Interventions
    • •Force fluids to 2 liters/day
    • •Offer antiemetics PRN
    • •Monitor renal labs
    • • Encourage good oral care
  9. Nitrosoureas
    • Examples:
    • •Carmustine
    • •Semustine
    • •Lomustine
    • •Streptozocin
    • ◦Nursing Interventions
    • •Monitor CBC
    • •Monitor for infection & bleeding
    • •Administer antiemetics PRN
    • •Safety precautions for falls.
    • •effects long bones
    • •decres. hnh
    • •decres. wbc
    • •decres plaletes
  10. Antitumor Antibiotics
    • •Bleomycin
    • •Adriamycin (common)
    • •Doxorubicin(common)
    • •mitomycin

    • Nursing Interventions:
    • •Monitor for extravasation
    • •Monitor for cardio toxicity
    • •Monitor pulmonary function
    • •Teach regarding alopecia
    • •Administer antiemetics PRN
    • •Teach regarding MUGA heart scan.
    • >cardio toxicity might not show up right away.
  11. Antimetabolites
    • •Folex
    • •Methotrexate
    • •Hydroxyurea
    • •pentostatin

    • Nursing Interventions:
    • •Monitor for renal and hepato-toxicity
    • •Monitor CBC & BMP (liver function)
    • •Monitor for infection & bleeding
    • •Administer antiemetics and antidiarrheals as
    • ordered.
    • •Administer good mouth care
  12. Mitotic Spindle Poisons
    • oPlant alkaloids:
    • •Vincristine
    • •Vinblastine
    • oTaxanes:
    • •Placlitaxel
    • •Taxotere



    • —Nursing Interventions:
    • •Monitor CBC
    • •Monitor for bleeding and infection
    • •Monitor for neuropathies
    • Administer gentle mouth care and physical therapy for foot, effects nervous system.
  13. Hormonal Agents
    • •Estrogen
    • •Progestins
    • •Androgens
    • •Steroids
    • oEflex
    • oNolvadex

    • Nursing Interventions:
    • •Administer analgesics & antiemetics PRN
    • •Perform neuro checks
    • •Monitor respiratory status
    • •Monitor for edema
    • •Monitor for increased calcium and sodium.
    • •Teach regarding SE: hot flashes,
    • masculinization, etc…
    • **bone pain is a good response to therapy**
  14. Lymphoma
    • >Lymphomas are cancer of the lymphoid
    • tissue, which includes the lymph nodes, spleen, and other organs of the immune
    • system.
    • Hodgkin lymphoma
    • >which is marked by the presence of a type of cell called the Reed-Sternberg cell. (but not all has this)
    • Non-Hodgkin lymphomas
    • >which includes the remainder of cancers of the immune system

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