Chapter 3 definitions

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Emiles
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285046
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Chapter 3 definitions
Updated:
2014-10-06 17:34:14
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Definitions on sensation
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  1. Sensation
    • A particular feeling or effect that your body experiences.     
    • Example: A short sensation of pain hit my back when I was exercising.
  2.  Perception
    • The ability to see, hear, or become aware of something through senses.    
    • Example: I could sense someone was in the room with me.
  3. Transduction
    • Is the conversion of a sensory stimuli from one form to another. In general, transduction is the transportation or transformation of something from one form, place, or concept to another.
    • Example:When the loud blast from the car wreck, it made my ears ring.  
  4. Absolute Threshold
    • The lowest level of stimulation that a person can detect.     
    • Example: A lighthouse light is recognize by sailors from a far distance
  5. Difference Threshold
    • Smallest amount of stimulation that must be added to or subtracted from an existing stimulus for a person to be able to detect a change 50% of the time.     
    • Example: The lamp light would get brighter each time you turn the knob up.
  6. Weber’s Law
    • The observation that the amount of stimulus increase or decrease required to notice a change, divided by the original stimulation, is a constant.     
    • Example: Weber’s law is like buying a new computer and then upgrading, by adding more memory, to run faster.
  7. Sensory Adaptation
    • Is the process in which changes in the sensitivity of sensory receptors occur in relation to the stimulus.     
    • Example: After riding in a car for about 30 minutes or so with someone who smokes, eventually, I began to adapt to the smell.
  8. Gestalt Grouping
    The Principles of grouping (or Gestalt laws of grouping) are a set of principles in psychology, first proposed by Gestalt psychologists to account for the observation that humans naturally perceive objects as organized patterns and objects.      Example: People associate better with even numbers than odds numbers because the even numbers are complete.
  9. Perceptual Constancy
    • The tendency to perceive the size and shape of an object as constant even though its retinal image change.      
    • Example: I saw my neighbor’s dog from a far distance, but as the dog came closer, I notice its color and sizes that it was not my neighbor’s dogs.
  10. Size Constancy
    • The tendency to perceive the size of an object as constant despite changes in its retinal image.
    • Example: Driving from a far distance the size of the building look smaller, but as I drove closer to the building it started looking larger.

  11. Shape Constancy
    • The tendency to perceive the shape of an object as constant despite changes in its retinal image.
    • Example: If individual see a door in many different angle, however, the shape of the door remains its constancy shape.
  12. Brightness or Color Constancy
    • The tendency for a visual object to be perceived as having the same brightness under widely different condition of illumination.
    • Example: The colors of a yellow balloon can be recognize doing the day or night.

  13. Extrasensory Perception (ESP) 
    • Behaviors or experiences that cannot be explained by information received by the senses.
    • Example: A person have a dream or a vision about doing something or being at a place before, and then later recognizing that this event happen before it happen.

  14. Signal Detention Theory 
    • Is a means to quantify the ability to discern between information-bearing patterns (called stimulus in humans, signal in machines) and random patterns that distract from the information (called noise, consisting of background stimuli and random activity of the detention machine and of the nervous system of the operator).
    • Example: When a person is walking in a dark place alone, your hearing is more alert than normal because of the situation is somewhat threating.

  15. Parapsychology
    • Is a field of study concerned with the investigation of paranormal and psychic phenomena.
    • Example: Parapsychology are called to investigate situation when people believe they have a ghost or a bad spirit in their home.

  16. The Muller-Lyer Illusion
    •  Is an optical illusion consisting of a stylized arrow. When viewers are asked to place a mark on the figure at the midpoint, they invariably place it move toward the tail end.
    • Example: By looking at the Muller-Lyer illusions of arrows, one can be misled by the actual length of the objects.

  17. Understand the effects of experience and culture on perceptual interpretations 
     
        
     Example: The effects of experience and culture with perceptual interpretations will, at time, give us a mental inclination, which are influenced with what we perceive by our assumptions and expectation

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