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A. the portuguese chart the course
1. Prince Henry "the navigator" began the portuguese exploration of the _____ coast; first for gold and slaves then to connect Europe to Asia's _____ _____.
2. Bartolomew Dias pioneered the _____ portuguese empire.
3. Vasco de Gama pushed the eastern empire to India allowing Portugal to challenge the _____/_____ spice trade.
- spice market
B. The Spanish Voyages of Columbus
1. Christopher Columbus landed in San Salvador in the Eastern Bahamas; he met friendly native peoples known as the _____ Indians.
2. Amergio Vespucci and Ferdinand Magellan explored the _____ of South America and onto the Pacific Ocean
a. Magellan's crew was the first to _____ the globe.
3. Intended and Unintended consequences
a. the Spanish had a zeal for conquering and _____ non-Christian peoples.
b. the trading black created enriched Spain and gave them a commanding role in the _____ _____ wars of the 16th and 17th centuries along with fueling a Europe wide expansion.
c. _____ _____ - movement of food, animals, disease, goods, and slaves from the Old World to the New World and back.
- religious and political
- Columbian Exchange
C. The Spanish Empire in the New World
1. The Aztec Empire dominated _____
a. from their capital at Tenochtitlan they ruled a vast wealthy empire; policies of demanding _____ _____ from subservient people led to bitter resentment.
b. Hernan Cortes ended the Aztec empire and declared it _____ _____.
2. Inca Empire in Peru - second largest empire in the Americas; conquered by Francisco _____.
3. A small _____ military force with advanced weapons were able to destroy two great empires.
a. New European _____ also helped Europeans conquer and dominate South America.
4. Besides the conquest of the Incas and Aztecs being two of the most _____ events in human history it marked a fundamental turning point in the New World in which South America became _____ _____.
- heavy tribute
- New Spain
- Latin America
D. The Church in Spanish America
1. early clergy sought to not only _____ native peoples but also to bring them European learning an civilization
a. bartolome de le Casas _____ against Spanish conquest of native peoples
b. "Black Legend" - exaggerated the harsh treatment of native peoples by the Spanish; _____ native peoples.
- spoke out
E. The Economy of Exploitation
1. forced labor was needed to _____ from mining, agriculture, and shipping.
a. mining focused on _____ and silver; the Spanish crown received 1/5 of all mining revenues.
b. agriculture built around the hacienda - large _____ owned by Peninsulars or Creoles and worked on by laborers
1. subordinate to mining
2. large _____ existed on the islands of the Caribbean
2. labor servitude
a. encomienda - right to the _____ of native peoples
b. repartimiendo - a labor tax requiring native peoples to work so many _____ annually
c. debt peonage - "free workers" were required to _____ all materials from mine owners
d. black slavery - used on sugar plantains in the _____ and Brazil
- landed estate
- West Indies
F. Impact on Europe
1. Columbus' discovery demonstrated the folly of relying on any fixed body of presumed _____ knowledge; opened a new age of communication and _____.
2. Influx of bullion into European economies led to _____
New government wealth led to sponsoring _____ and expnasion in printing, shipping, mining, _____, and the weapons industry.
4. rise in capitalism - intended to _____ the free and efficient accumulation of wealth
a. new wealth _____ the traditional social divisions between varying social groups paving the way for the Reformation.