CNA cert. Ch. 4-6

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Anonymous
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285058
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CNA cert. Ch. 4-6
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2014-10-06 21:05:32
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nursing cna nursesaid exam bodysystems mentalillness nursingskills
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definitions & key points
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  1. name for when all body systems are working at their best
    HOMEOSTASIS
  2. to widen
    Dialate
  3. to narrow
    constrict
  4. when the muscle wastes away, decreases in size and becomes weak
    Atrophy
  5. muscle/tendon shortens, becomes inflexible and "freezes in position" (causes permanent disability of limb)
    Contracture
  6. helps prevent atrophy and contracture
    ROM exercises (Range of Motion)
  7. swelling of joints
    Inflammation
  8. causes the body's immune system to attack normal tissue in the body
    Auto-Immune Illness
  9. disease that makes joints become red, swollen, and very painful. deformities can result and will be severe and possibly disabling
    Rheumatoid Arthritis
  10. Also called DJD or (degenerative joint disease). Hips and knees are affected and joints in the fingers, thumbs, and spine. Increases in the cold
    Osteoarthritis
  11. causes bones to become porus and brittle
    Osteoporosis
  12. end of menstruation
    Menopause
  13. resident is able to support some body weight on one or both legs
    Partial Weight Bearing (PWB)
  14. another word for walk
    Gait
  15. means that the resident is unable to touch the floor or support any weight on one or both legs
    Non-weight bearing (NWB)
  16. both legs can bear 100 percent of the body weight on a step
    Full-weight-bearing (FWB)
  17. paralysis on one side of the body
    Hemiplegia (think of hemisphere)
  18. weakness on one side of the body
    Hemiparesis (again, think of hemispheres)
  19. trouble communicating through speech or writing (usually occurs after a CVA or stroke)
    expressive aphasia
  20. Difficulty understanding spoken and written words (usually happens after CVA or Stroke)
    receptive aphasia
  21. laughing or crying for no reason at all or when inappropriate
    Emotional Lability
  22. head and spinal chord injuries
    paraplegia
  23. loss of function in the legs, trunk, and arms
    quadriplegia
  24. high blood pressure (at least 140/90 or higher)
    Hypertension
  25. helps reduce fluids in the body
    diuretics
  26. chest pain, pressure, or discomfort caused by heart muscle not getting enough oxygen
    Angina Pectoris
  27. body taking in oxygen and removing carbon dioxide, involves breathing in
    Respiration
  28. breathing out
    expiration
  29. process of preparing food physically and chemically so it can be absorbed by cells
    Digestion
  30. process of expelling solid wastes that are not absorbed into cells
    Elimination
  31. inability to eliminate stool (have a bowel movement)
    Constipation
  32. amount of water injected into colon to eliminate stool
    Enema
  33. medication given rectally to cause a bowel movement
    Suppository
  34. surgical creation of an opening from an area inside the body to the outside
    Ostomy
  35. artificial opening in abdomen that brings out the end of the intestine
    Stoma
  36. organs that produce and secrete hormones
    Glands
  37. chemical substance created by body that controls numerous body functions
    Hormones
  38. occurs when pancreas produces too little insulin or does not properly use insulin.
    Diabetes
  39. natural sugar
    Glucose
  40. occurs when a person's blood glucose levels are above normal but not high enough for diagnoses of type 2 diabetes
    Pre-diabetes
  41. pregnant women who have never had diabetes but have high blood sugar during pregnancy
    Gestational Diabetes
  42. to create a new human life
    reproduce
  43. male or female reproductive sex cells
    Gonads
  44. group of abnormally growing cells
    Tumor
  45. identify which tumor is cancerous and which is non-cancerous
    • Benign tumors-non cancerous
    • malignant tumors- canerous
  46. inability to think clearly
    confusion
  47. state of severe confusion that can occur suddenly and is usually temporary
    Delirium
  48. ability to think logically and clearly
    Cognition
  49. general term referring to a serious loss of mental abilities such as thinking, remembering, reasoning, and communicating
    Dementia.
  50. causes tangled nerve fibers and protein deposits to form inside of the brain (eventually causes dementia)
    Alzheimer's Disease
  51. When residents repeat words, phrases, questions, or actions
    Perseveration
  52. when a person with Alzheimers disease overreacts to something
    catastrophic reaction
  53. walking back and forth in the same area
    Pacing
  54. When a resident walks aimlessly around the facility
    Wandering
  55. taking things that belong to someone else
    Pillaging
  56. collecting and putting things away in a guarded way
    Hoarding
  57. given value to or approving
    Validation
  58. ways to keep body clean and healthy
    Hygeine
  59. practices like caring for fingernails and hair
    Grooming.
  60. areas of body that bear most of its weight
    Pressure points
  61. of body where bone lies close to the skin
    Body Prominences
  62. skin breaks down, becomes white, pale or reddened colour
    Pressure ulcer (pressure sore, bed sore, decubitus ulcer)
  63. rubbing that results from the skin moving one way and the body underneath it remaining fixed or moving in opposite direction
    Shearing.
  64. "turning sheets" may be placed under residents who need help with turning, lifting or moving up in bed
    Draw Sheets
  65. weakness of muscle in the feet and ankles that causes problems with the ability to flex the ankles and walk normally
    Foot drop
  66. helps support and align a limb and improve its functioning
    Orthotic device or "orthosis"
  67. given on days when a complete bed bath, tub bath, or shower is not done. includes washing face, hands, underarms, and perineum
    partial bath
  68. medical term for an infestation of lice
    Pediculosis
  69. sharp blade, comes with a safety casing to prevent cuts and requires shaving cream and soap
    Safety razor
  70. requires shaving cream & soap, discarded in sharps container after use
    Disposable razor
  71. safest and easiest razor to use. doesn't require shaving cream/soap
    Electric razor
  72. abbreviation for "into a vein"
    IV/ Intravenous
  73. obstruction of a blood clot or blood vessel
    Embolism
  74. care of mouth, teeth, and gums, done twice a day
    Oral Care
  75. inhalation of food, fluid, or foreign materials into the lungs
    Aspiration
  76. bed pan that is flatter than original pan (used for knee and hip replacements)
    Fracture pan
  77. sleeping position where resident lies flat on back
    Supine
  78. sleeping position in which resident is lying on either side
    Lateral
  79. sleeping position in which resident is lying on stomach
    Prone
  80. sleeping position in which resident is in a semi-sitting position
    Fowler's
  81. moving a resident as a unit, without disturbing alignment of body
    logrolling
  82. sit up on the side of the bed with legs hanging over the side
    dangling
  83. these show how well the vital organs of the body such as heart and lungs are working. Includes body temperature, counting the pulse, counting rate of respirations, measure blood pressure, and observe & report levels of pain
    Vital Signs
  84. Identify the 5 vital signs to record
    • body temperature
    • counting the pulse
    • counting rate of respirations
    • measure blood pressure
    • observe & report levels of pain
  85. checking the pulse on the inside of the wrist, where the radial artery runs beneath the skin
    Radial Pulse
  86. the pulse inside the elbow
    Brachial Pulse
  87. breathing air into the lungs
    Inspiration
  88. exhaling air out of the lungs
    expiration
  89. (blood pressure) heart is at work, contracting & pushing blood from left ventricle of the heart
    Systolic Phase
  90. (blood pressure) heart relaxes
    Diastolic Phase
  91. Which phase is always the higher one according to blood pressure?
    Diastolic Phase
  92. physical/chemical way to restrict voluntary movement and behavior
    Restraint
  93. a plan that uses no physical or chemical restraints
    Restraint free care
  94. interventions used in place of restraint or that reduces need for a restraint
    Restraint alternatives
  95. fluid a person consumes
    Intake/Input
  96. fluid taken in each day that has been eliminated
    Output
  97. maintaining equal input and output or taking in and eliminating equal amounts of fluids
    Fluid Balance
  98. sample used for analysis in order to try and make a diagnoses
    specimen
  99. collected anytime a resident voids/urinates
    Routine urine specimen
  100. plastic collection container sometimes put into toilet to collect or measure urine or stool
    Hat
  101. "mid stream" (CCMS) doesn't include first and last urine in sample, purpose is to determine bacteria in urine
    clean catch specimen
  102. thin tube inserted into body used to drain or inject fluids
    catheter
  103. used to drain urine from the bladder
    urinary catheter
  104. doesn't remain inside of person, removed immediately after urine is drained
    straight catheter
  105. remains inside of bladder for a period of time
    indwelling catheter
  106. also called "texas catheter" or "external catheter" has attachment on end that fits onto the penis
    condom catheter
  107. administration of oxygen to increase supply of oxygen to lungs
    Oxygen Therapy
  108. the process of burning
    Combustion
  109. easily ignited and capable of burning quickly
    flammable
  110. delivery of medication, nutrition, or fluids through a person's vein
    Intravenous Therapy (IV therapy)
  111. bed made while resident is in it
    occupied bed
  112. bed made with no resident present
    unoccupied bed
  113. a bed completely made with the bedspread and blankets in place
    closed bed
  114. bed with linens folded down to the foot of the bed
    open bed
  115. how the body uses food to maintain health
    nutrition
  116. substance necessary for growth and life
    Nutrient
  117. supply the body with energy and extra protein
    carbohydrates
  118. needed for energy and tissue growth
    Protein
  119. help the body store energy and give flavor to foods
    Fats
  120. substances needed by the body to function, can only be obtained from certain foods
    Vitamins
  121. help build bones, make hormones, and help blood formations, Includes: Zinc, Calcium, Iron, Magnesium
    Minerals
  122. certain nutrients or fluids are restricted or removed by doctors orders
    therapeutic/modified/special diet
  123. usually for people w/ high blood pressure, heart disease, and kidney disease
    low-sodium diet
  124. for people who have trouble processing fluids
    fluid-restricted diet
  125. restricted because it breaks down into compounds and can damage the kidneys
    Low-Protein diet
  126. for people who have high levels of cholesterol in their blood
    low fat/ low cholesterol diet.
  127. blended or grinded into a thick paste of baby food consistancy
    PUREE
  128. encourage more fluids to be drank
    (FF) force fluids
  129. allowed to drink but should be limited
    (RF) restricted fluids
  130. given nutrition through a feeding tube or IV
    NPO (nothing by mouth)
  131. when a person doesn't have enough fluid in the body
    Dehydration
  132. when body cannot handle the fluid consumed
    Fluid overload
  133. swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues
    Edema
  134. difficulty swallowing
    Dysphagia
  135. a solution of nutrients goes straight into bloodstream bypassing digestive system
    hyperalimentation/total parental nutrition (TPA)
  136. inserted into nose and goes into the stomach
    Nasogastric tube

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