psych chapters 3&5

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psych chapters 3&5
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2014-10-06 23:04:58
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chapters 3&5
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  1. Consciousness
    the combination of a persons subjective experience of the external world and the persons mental activity
  2. Subliminal processing
    the processing of information by sensory systems with out a persons conscious awareness
  3. global workspace model
    consciousness is a product of activity in specific brain regions
  4. split brain
    a condition in which the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each another
  5. prefrontal cortex
    i understand plans
  6. Primary motor cortex
    im all about that motion
  7. Parietal lobe
    Im aware of space
  8. occipital lobe
    i see things
  9. Temporal lobe
    i hear things
  10. brocas area
    left hemisphere, produces language
  11. Primary visual cortex
    processes visual field images
  12. circadian rhythm
    the regulation of biological cycles into regular daily patterns
  13. Melatonin
    a hormone, released in the brain that causes the desire to sleep
  14. alert wakefulness
    beta waves
  15. Just before sleep
    Alpha waves
  16. Stage 1
    theta waves, can easily be awakened and will probably deny sleeping
  17. stage 2
    K complexes, or bursts in brain activity
  18. Slow wave sleep or stages 3&4
    Delta waves, very deep sleep, hard to wake up
  19. Rem
    beta waves, brain shows more activity is some regions than when in an awake state
  20. Dreams
    products of consciousness during sleep in which a person confuses images and fantasies with reality
  21. activations synthesis theory
    dreams are the result of the brains attempts to make sense of the random brain activity by synthesizing the thoughts with stored memories
  22. sleep apnea
    a disorder when a person whom is sleeping suddenly stops breathing because the throat closes
  23. narcolepsy
    a disorder where you randomly fall asleep
  24. hypnosis
    a social interaction during which a person, responding to suggestions, experiences changes in memory, perception, and/or voluntary actions
  25. sociocognitive theory of hypnosis
    hypnotized people are not in an altered state, but they behave in a way that is expected of a situation
  26. dissociation theory of hypnosis
    hypnotized people are in an altered state where their awareness is separated from other aspects of consciousness
  27. meditation
    a practice in which intense contemplation leads to a deep sense of calmness that has been described as an altered state of consciousness
  28. flow
    a highly focused, altered state of consciousness, when arenas of self and time diminishes due to being completely engrossed in an enjoyable activity(runners high?)
  29. stimulants
    increases mental and psychical activities. coke, meth, caffeine, nicotine
  30. hallucinogenics
    psychoactive drug that affects perceptual experiences and evoke sensory images without sensory input. ecstasy, weed, molly.
  31. depressants
    depressants that decreases mental and psychical activity. alcohol, heroin, morphine,
  32. sensation
    the detection of physical stimuli from the world around us and sending the information to the brain
  33. perception
    the processing, organization and interpretation of sensory signals in the brain
  34. sensory receptors
    sensory organs that detect physical stimulation from the external world and change that stimulation into info that the brain can process
  35. transduction
    a process in which sensory receptors change physical stimuli into signals that can be sent to the brain
  36. absolute threshold
    the smallest amount of physical stimuli to trigger a sensory input 50% of the time it is present
  37. difference threshold
    minimum difference in physical stimulation required to detect a difference between sensory inputs
  38. signal detection theory
    detection of a faint stimulus requires a judgement- it is not an all or none process
  39. sensory adaptation
    a decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation
  40. lens
    the adjustable transparent structure behind the pupil, this structure focuses light on retina, resulting in a crisp visual image.
  41. retina
    the thin inner surface of the back of the eyeball this surface contains the sensory receptors
  42. rods
    sensory receptors in the retina that detect light waves and transduce them into signals that can be processed by the brain. LOW LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION.
  43. cones
    sensory receptors that detect light waves and transduce them into signals that can be processed by the brain. HIGH LEVELS OF ILLUMINATION. RESPONSIBLE FOR SEEING COLOR AND FINE DETAIL.
  44. trichromatic theory
    there are three types of cone receptors in cells in the retina that are responsible of color perception.
  45. opponent process theory
    the proposal that ganglion on cells in the retina receive excitatory input from one type of cone and inhibitory input from another type of cone
  46. grouping
    the visual systems organization of features and regions to create the perception of a whole unified object.
  47. bottom up processing
    the perception of objects is due to analysis of environmental stimulus input by sensory receptors
  48. top down processing
    perception of objects is due to complex analysis of prior experiences and expectations within the brain
  49. binocular depth cues
    cues of depth perception that arise because people have two eyes
  50. monocular depth cues
    cues of perception that are available to one specific eye.
  51. eardrum
    thin membrane that marks the beginning of the middle ear. sound causes ear to vibrate.
  52. cochlea
    a coiled bony, fluid filled tube in the inner ear that houses sensory receptors
  53. hair cells
    sensory receptors located in the cochlea that detect sound waves and transduce them into signals that ultimately are processed as sound in the brain
  54. temporal coding
    the perception of lower pitched sounds is a result of the rate at which our hair cells are stimulated by lower frequencies
  55. place coding
    the perception of higher pitched sounds
  56. taste buds
    structures located in the papillae on the tongue that contain the sensory receptors that control taste
  57. papillae
    structures on the tongue that contain groupings in taste buds
  58. olfactory bulb
    a brain structure right above the nasal cavity that is responsible for the interpretation of smell
  59. pressure receptors
    sensory receptors in the skin that detect tactile stimulation and change it into info the brain can process
  60. fast fibers
    sensory receptors in skin, muscles, organs, and membranes around bones and joints, that quickly convey intense sensory input into the brain where it is perceived as sharp immediate pain
  61. slow fibers
    sensory receptors that slowly convey intense sensory input to the brain where is perceived as chronic, dull steady pain

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