Chemistry Test 2

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smittykitty
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285082
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Chemistry Test 2
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2014-10-07 16:36:20
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chemistry test 2
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  1. How can you determine the number of valence electrons?
    Group #
  2. Which molecules follow the duet rule?
    H, He, Li, and Be
  3. Binary covalent compounds
    Two different nonmetals that share valence electrons
  4. What is the prefix for one atom in a covalent compound?
    mono (don't use for first element)
  5. What is the prefix for 2 atoms in a covalent compound?
    Di
  6. What is the prefix for 3 atoms in a covalent compound?
    tri
  7. What is the prefix for 4 atoms in a covalent compound?
    tetra
  8. What is the prefix for 5 atoms in a covalent compound?
    penta
  9. What is the prefix for 6 atoms in a covalent compound?
    hexa
  10. What is the prefix for 7 atoms in a covalent compound?
    hepta
  11. What is the prefix for 8 atoms in a covalent compound?
    octa
  12. What is the prefix for 9 atoms in a covalent compound?
    nona
  13. What is the prefix for 10 atoms in a covalent compound?
    deca
  14. If a single atom of the first element is present in naming binary covalent compounds...
    just give the full name of the element
  15. If more than one atom of the first element is present in naming binary covalent compounds...
    Start with a number prefix plus the full name of the element
  16. How do you name the second nonmetal in naming binary covalent compounds?
    Using a number prefix plus the root of the element name plus the ending -ide
  17. To write the formula for a covalent compound...
    • List the element symbols in the same order as they appear in the name
    • Write the numbers indicated by the prefixes as subscripts after the element symbols
  18. How can you tell if a compound is ionic?
    If the first element is a metal or it starts with ammonium (NH4^+)
  19. What rule must you follow when naming ionic compounds?
    Use no prefixes
  20. Definition of an acid
    A substance that release H+ ions (or protons or hydronium ions) in water solutions
  21. What does the number of H's in acid formulas depend on?
    The charge of the anion present
  22. What are acids that can produce only one H+
    monoprotic
  23. What are acids that can produce 2 H+'s?
    Diprotic
  24. What are acids that can produce 3 or more H+'s?
    Polyprotic
  25. What do binary acids contain?
    H and one other element
  26. How are binary acids named?
    hydro + part or all of element name + ic acid
  27. What do oxyacids contain?
    Oxygen
  28. When naming oxyacids...
    • Oxyacids containing -ate ions end with -ic acid
    • Oxyacids containing -ite ions end with -ous acid
  29. Binary compounds that start with H are usually named as...
    Ionic compounds containing H+ ions when they are in the gas phase
  30. What is the chemical formula of hydrogen peroxide?
    H2O2
  31. What is the household chemical name for H2O2
    hydrogen peroxide
  32. What is the chemical formula for methane
    CH4
  33. What is the household chemical name for CH4
    methane (natural gas)
  34. What is the chemical formula for ammonia?
    NH3
  35. What is the household chemical name for NH3
    Ammonia
  36. What is the chemical formula for drinking ethanol, ethyl alcohol, or ethanol
    C2H5OH
  37. What is the household chemical name for C2H5OH
    Drinking ethanol
  38. What is the chemical formula for vinegar (acetic acid)
    HC2H3O2
  39. What is the common household chemical name for HC2H3O2
    vinegar or acetic acid
  40. What is the chemical formula for rubbing alcohol or ispropyl alcohol?
    • C3H7OH
  41. What is the common household chemical name for C3H7OH
    Rubbing alcohol or isopropyl alcohol
  42. What is the chemical formula for acetone?
    C3H6O
  43. What is the common household chemical name for C3H6O
    acetone or finger nail polish remover
  44. Which elements do not make multiple bonds?
    B, Be, and Al
  45. Resonance structures
    Equivalent Lewis structures that differ only in the positions of electrons
  46. Resonance
    A phenomenon occurring when there are equivalent Lewis structures for molecules or ions. It results in greater stability for the molecule or ion.
  47. resonance energy or delocalization energy
    the extra stability associated with resonance and the presence of delocalized electrons
  48. Formal charge
    a number assigned to atoms in a Lewis structure to help locate charges within structures
  49. Formula for formal charge
    Group # - 1/2(bonding e's) - nonbonding e's
  50. What is the criteria for judging the "best" Lewis structures
    • 1. All atoms (except B, Be, and Al) should have complete valence shells
    • 2.Formal charges should be minimal (zero whenever possible)
    • 3. Any negative formal charges should be on more electron negative atoms
  51. Valence Shell Electron Pair Repulsion Theory (VSEPR Theory)
    electron pairs in the valence shell of an atom repel each other, moving as far from each other as possible to minimize repulsions
  52. What is the typical bonding degree in a linear EDG?
    180 degrees
  53. What is the typical bonding degree in a trigonal planar EDG?
    120 degrees
  54. What is the definition of a linear EDG?
    Electron pairs are straight across from each other
  55. What is the definition of a trigonal planar EDG?
    Electron pairs form a triangular shape and are all on one plane
  56. What is the definition of a tetrahedral EDG?
    joining the ends of the bonds forms four equivalent triangles
  57. What is the typical bonding degree in a tetrahedral EDG?
    109.5 degrees
  58. What is the definition of trigonal bipyramidal EDG?
    Five electron pairs on the central atom
  59. What is the definition of octahedral EDG?
    Six electron pairs
  60. How many domains are in a linear EDG?
    2
  61. How many domains are in a trigonal planar EDG?
    3
  62. How many domains are in a tetrahedral EDG?
    4
  63. How many domains are in a trigonal bipyramidal EDG?
    5
  64. How many domains are in a octahedral EDG?
    6
  65. What molecular shapes are possible with a trigonal planar EDG?
    • trigonal planar
    • bent (one lone pair)
  66. What molecular shapes are possible with a tetrahedral EDG?
    • tetrahedral
    • trigonal pyramidal (one lone pair)
    • bent (two lone pairs)
  67. How do nonbonding electron pairs cause bonding angles to change?
    They occupy more space and push the other bonds outward
  68. What molecular shapes are possible with a trigonal bypyramidal EDG?
    • trigonal bipyramidal
    • see-saw (one lone pair)
    • T-shaped (two lone pairs)
    • linear (three lone pairs)
  69. What molecular shapes are possible with an octahedral EDG?
    • octahedral
    • square pyramidal (one lone pair)
    • square planar (two lone pairs)
    • T-shaped (three lone pairs)
  70. Partial charge
    a charge that is not a full positive or full negative charge
  71. electronegativity
    a measure of the tendency of an atom to attract the electron density of a bond
  72. Electron negativity follows the same trend as ionization energy and electron affinity which is...
    To the right and up on the periodic table
  73. polar covalent bond
    electron sharing is significantly uneven
  74. How is the extent to which a covalent bond is polar determined?
    The difference in electronegativities (high minus low)
  75. bond dipole
    a shift in the electron density in a bond due to differences in electronegativities between two bonded atoms. A polar covalent bond has a bond dipole
  76. Nonpolar
    a molecule with a net dipole of zero. A molecule that does not have opposite partial charges on different ends of the molecule
  77. Polar molecule
    a molecule with a net dipole moment. A molecule wit ha partially positive side and a partially negative side
  78. dipole moment
    the sum of the effects of the bond dipoles taking the geometry of the molecule into account.
  79. molecular shape = electron pair geometry and all outside atoms are the same
    nonpolar
  80. molecular shape does not equal electron-pair geometry (ie there are lone pairs) or outside atoms have different electronegativities
    polar

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