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  1. 3 Key areas of SAP
    • On Device: Extending reach of customers
    • On Demand: Innovating through extensions
    • On Premise: Scaling core businesses
  2. 4 SAP Products from smallest to biggest
    • Business One: Basic functions
    • Business ByDesign: Software on Demand
    • Business All-In-One: Preconfigured Functions
    • Business Suite: Most comprehensive functions
  3. 5 Features of SAP Business Suite
    • Complete SPectrum of business solutions
    • Technological infrastructure with openness and flexibility
    • Interface for integrating Non-SAP-Products
    • Adaptable Components
    • Industry specifix functions
  4. 5 Core applications of SAP Business Suite
    • ERP
    • CRM
    • SCM
    • SRM
    • PLM
  5. 3 Levels of SAP NetWeaver Application Server
    • Presentation Level
    • Application Level
    • Database Level
  6. 6 Features of SAP NetWeaver AS
    • Reliable runtime environment
    • Framework for executing business processes
    • Reliable and user-friendly development environment
    • High security standards
    • High scalability
    • Support for several operating systems and database systems
  7. 3 installation options of SAP NetWeaver AS
    • AS ABAP
    • AS Java
    • AS ABAP + AS Java (Dual Stack)
  8. 8 Capabilities of SAP NetWeaver
    • User Productivity
    • Business Intelligence
    • Business Process Composition
    • Enterprise Information Management
    • SOA Middleware
    • Custom Development
    • Security and Identity Management
    • Application Lifecycle Management
  9. 5 key functionalities of SAP NetWeaver
    • Composition Environment
    • Process Integration
    • Application Lifecycle Management
    • Security and Identity Management
    • Application Platform
  10. 3 Shipment phases
    • Beta: Only for testing
    • Restricted: Productive Ramp-Up
    • Unrestricted: Productive
  11. Old and new maintenance strategies
    • 5-1-2-Rule
    • 7-2 Rule
  12. 3 Maintenance phases
    • Mainstream: Starts with release to customer date
    • Extended: After mainstream
    • Customer-Specific: After extended
  13. 3 Access technologies to SAP systems (GUIs)
    • SAP GUI
    • Browser-based
    • SAP NW Business Client
  14. 3 versions of SAP-GUI
    • SAP GUI for Windows
    • SAP GUI for Java
    • SAP GUI for HTML
  15. 2 Characteristics of Standard password policy
    • User can change password once a day
    • Admin can reset passwords unlimited
  16. 2 Characteristics of User master data
    • Stored in User Master Record
    • Client-Dependent
  17. 4 Options to log off a SAP system
    • Navigate System -> Log off
    • Choose Exit pushbutton on SAP Easy Access Screen
    • Type /NEND in command field (With prompt)
    • Type /NEX in command field (No prompt)
  18. 2 SAP NW Runtime Environments
    • ABAP runtime environment (AS ABAP)
    • Java runtime environment (AS Java)
  19. 5 Advantages of using Java EE for SAP NetWeaver
    • Perfect integration of two open technologies
    • Platform independence
    • Standardized integration of external applications
    • Support of Web Service Technologies
    • Access to experienced developers from Java community
  20. 5 Main Characteristics of a SAP System
    • Has a Database
    • One or more application server instances
    • Central Services (Enqueue, Message)
    • Optional components (TREX, liveCache, etc.)
    • Three digit/letter system ID
  21. 5 Available work processes and their cardinality for the dispatcher
    • Dialog (D): 2 : n
    • Update (V): 1 :n
    • Spool (S): 1 : n
    • Background (B): 1 : n
    • Enqueue: 1 : n (all on same instance!)
  22. 3 services of the ABAP runtime environment (Not work processes)
    • Message Server (MS): Communication between distributed dispatchers
    • Gateway process (GW): Communication between systems (SAP and Non-SAP)
    • Internet Communication Manager (ICM): Communication with users using web protocols
  23. 3 Services of the AS Java central instance
    • Gateway service
    • Message service
    • Enqueue Service
  24. 3 Tasks of the AS Java Internet Communication Manager
    • Handle client requests
    • Dispatch requests to server processes
    • Transfer data using Fast channel Architecture (FCA)
  25. 2 Tasks of the AS Java Server process
    • Execute Java applications
    • Process incoming requests from ICM simultaniousely (Multi-threaded)
  26. 4 Tasks of the AS ABAP Message Server (MS)
    • Provide central message service for internal communication
    • Provide info about the currently available instances
    • Enable interprocess communication among all ABAP dispatchers
    • Perform a load distribution of users (Load balancing)
  27. 5 Functions performed by the ABAP dispatcher
    • Manage ABAP application ressources
    • Distribute requests among work processes
    • Integrate presentation layer
    • Organize communication activities
    • Process request queue according to FIFO-principle
  28. 3 Actions performed by the ABAP dispatcher during system initialization
    • Read system profile parameters
    • Start work processes
    • Log on to the message server
  29. 5 Flow steps done by the database interface when a OPEN-SQL query is performed
    • Check statement Syntax
    • Check local buffer of application servers shared memory
    • Translate to native SQL
    • Retrieve data from database
    • Convert data for application
  30. 2 modules of ABAP screen flow logic
    • Process Before Output (PBO): Processed before screen image is sent
    • Process After Input (PAI): Processed after user interaction
  31. 4 Points of the ACID principle of transactions
    • A - Atomic: Fully Successful or no effects
    • C - Consistent: From one consistent system status to another
    • I - Isolated: Changes are only available after final commit
    • D - Durable: Changes are permanent after final commit
  32. 4 Lock modes
    • Write lock (Exclusive): Only one user can edit the data
    • Read lock (Shared): Several users can read - write locks are rejected
    • Extended write lock: Only once at a time - all other locks are rejected
    • Optimistic lock: Like read lock, but can be transformed to write lock when saving
  33. 3 Types of database updates
    • Primary V1 updates: Time-critical
    • Secondary V2 updates: Non-time-critical
    • Non-time-critical updates: Processed at a later point (Manual Collective run)
  34. 6 Steps of an asynchronous database update
    • Lock data and pass lock key to user
    • Write update request to database update tables (VB* tables) with CALL FUNCTION ... IN UPDATE TASK
    • Save data - complete update header and trigger update work process
    • Update work process reads VB*-tables
    • Update work process writes changes to DB, commits work and clears VB* tables
    • Lock entries in lock tables are reset
  35. 4 VB* tables
    • VBHDR: Update headers
    • VBMOD: Update modules
    • VBDATA: Update data
    • VBERROR: Possible error information
  36. 3 Characteristics of background processing
    • Automatically start scheduled programs
    • Execute long-running/resource-intensive programs at off-peak times
    • No runtime restrictions of dialog processing
  37. 3 Advantages of a three tier client/server configuration
    • Higher scalability
    • Load Balancing
    • Increase performance
  38. 12 Interface technologies supported by SAP systems
    • ALE: Application Link Enabling
    • BAPI: Business Application Programming Interface
    • CPI-C: Common Program Interface Communication
    • EDI: Electronic Data Interchange
    • HTTP(S): TyperText Transfer Protocol (Secured)
    • LU 6.2: Logical Unit 6.2
    • RFC: Remote Function Call
    • OLE: Object Linking and Embedding
    • SMTP: Simple Mail Transfer Protocol
    • SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
    • TCP/IP: Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protcol
    • XML: Extensible Markup Language
  39. 4 Characteristics of RFC (Remote Function Call)
    • SAP interface protocol based on CPI-C and TCP/IP
    • Communication between various systems
    • Usage for SAP and Non-SAP systems
    • Bidirectional
  40. 4 Use Cases for BAPIs
    • Linking processes accross system boundaries
    • Integration of solutions in SAP Business Suite Framework
    • Connecting a SAP system to the Internet
    • Connecting to external programs
  41. 7 Points that have to be identified before implementing ALE and one example for each point
    • Business Process: Pre salary payment
    • Involved Objects: Employee data
    • Information to be transmitted: Employee records
    • Data format: IDOC
    • Transfer technology: RFC
    • Transfer type: Asynchronousely
    • Transfer destination: FI SAP system
  42. 4 implemented Web Service standards in SAP NW AS
    • XML: Extensible Markup Language
    • SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
    • WSDL: Webservice Description Language
    • UDDI: Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
  43. 2 Apporaches to implement Webservices
    • Inside-Out: Create WSDL out of existing functions
    • Outside-In: Create functions from an existing WSDL
  44. 2 Types of composite Business Processes
    • Human Centric: Driven by human activities
    • System Centric: Integrating Core appliction processes with 3rd party systems
  45. 6 Characteristics of Enterprise Services
    • Structured according to business objects, process components and global data types
    • Defined using an Outside-In approach
    • Stable interface for future versions
    • Well documented services
    • Based on open standards in compliance with e-business standards
    • Interface described according to WSDL
  46. 3 Main Characteristics of the ABAP Repository
    • Consists of all system development objects
    • Stored in the database
    • Client independent
  47. 2 Areas of the Object Navigator
    • Navigation Area (left): Displaying hierarchial object list
    • Tool Area (right): Displaying/Editing the development object with the appropriate tool
  48. 4 Advantages of organizing a development project using change requests
    • Monitor activities
    • Objects are locked for other developers
    • Every developer can process his own development objects
    • Automatic transport of all relevant objects
  49. 5 Attributes of a package
    • Application Component: Optional
    • Short description: Mandatory
    • Software Component: Mandatory
    • Transport Layer: Mandatory (But can be space!)
    • Package Type: Mandatory
  50. 3 package types
    • Main package: Can only contain other packages
    • Standard Package: Can contain repository objects and other packages
    • Structure package: Can only Contain Main Packages
  51. 6 Basic ABAP principles
    • Typed
    • Enables Multi-language applications
    • Enables SQL-Access
    • Enhanced as object-oriented language
    • Platform-independent
    • Upward-Compatible
  52. 6 key characteristics of ABAP Syntax
    • Individual statements
    • First word of statement is called ABAP keyword
    • Each statement ends with a period
    • A space must separate two words
    • Statements can be intended
    • Keywords / Operators are not case-sensitive
  53. 5 Steps in correct order, being performed when activating a development object
    • Saving object as inactive version
    • Checking syntax and consistency
    • Previously active version becomes inactive
    • Current version gets active version
    • Generating runtime object (If executable)
  54. 3 automatic steps being performed when a change request is released
    • Object locks are removed
    • Copies of developed objects are transported to systems own transport directory
    • Copies of developed objects is stored in systems own version database
  55. 3 Use cases for data types
    • Define data objects
    • Define interface parameters
    • Define Input/Output fields
  56. 2 groups of ABAP standard data types
    • Complete: Fixed length
    • Incomplete: Length has to be set
  57. 8 Complete ABAP standard data types
    • D: Date with length 8
    • T: Time with length 6
    • I: Integer length 4
    • F: Numeric length 8 with 16 decimals
    • STRING: Dynamic length character string
    • XSTRING: Dynamic length byte sequence (Hex)
    • DECFLOAT16: 8 byte numeric with 16 decimals
    • DECFLOAT34: 16 byte numeric with 34 decimals
  58. 4 Incomplete ABAO standard data types
    • C: Character string (Standard length 1)
    • N: Numeric Character string (Standard length 1)
    • X: Byte Sequence (Hex) (Standard length 1)
    • P: Packed number with length and decimals to be specified (Standard: length 8
  59. 3 Categories of data types
    • Standard: Complete or Incomplete Standard type
    • Global: Type from dictionary
    • Local: Locally defined type
  60. 5 Advantages of global data types
    • Reuse throughout the system
    • Reduce maintenance effort
    • Where-used-list
    • Semantic description
    • Usage in design of screens
  61. 7 Arithmetic Expressions and their operators
    • Addition: +
    • Subtraction: -
    • Multiplication: *
    • Division: /
    • Exponentation: **
    • Integral division: DIV
    • Modulo: MOD
  62. 10 Important system fields
    • sy-subrc: Return code of ABAP statement (0 when success)
    • sy-uname: Logon user name
    • sy-mandt: Logon client
    • sy-langu: Logon language
    • sy-datum: current system date
    • sy-uzeit: current system time
    • sy-tcode: current transaction
    • sy-repid: current program
    • sy-index: current loop counter
    • sy-dbcnt: count of read database entries
  63. 3 Advantages of modularization
    • More transparency
    • Function-oriented
    • Easier, central maintenance
  64. 3 Pass types for actual parameters of a subroutine
    • Call by Value (Using): Actual parameter is copied to formal parameter
    • Call by Value and Result (Changing): Like call by value, but result is written bacl to actual parameter
    • Call by Reference (Changing): Actual parameter is assigned to the formal parameter (No copy!)
  65. 6 Featured attributes in function module documentation
    • Short text
    • Functional description
    • Example of use
    • Notes
    • Parameter description
    • Exception description
  66. 4 usual standard object functions of a BAPI
    • Create object
    • Retrieve object attributes
    • Change object attributes
    • List objects
  67. 6 Requirements for a BAPI function module
    • Naming convention BAPI_<object_name>_<method_name>
    • Remote enabled
    • No user dialoges or messages
    • Interface parameters typed with BAPI structures (Prefix BAPI)
    • No changing parameters
    • No exceptions
  68. 3 Typical use cases for internal tables
    • Retain data from tables or sequential files for future processing
    • Format data for screen or printer
    • Format data for using other services
  69. 3 main attributes of internal tables
    • Line type: Line type of the table
    • Primary key: Unique or non unique (Default: Non unique, all non-numeric fields as key)
    • Table kind: Standard, Sorted and Hashed (Default: Standard)
  70. 3 kinds of internal tables
    • Standard: Index and key managed internally
    • Sorted: Internally sorted by key
    • Hashed: Internally sorted by unique key, only key access possible
  71. 6 Operations in internal tables
    • APPEND: Append line to table at the end
    • INSERT <structure> INTO TABLE <itab>: Insert line into table with index
    • READ TABLE: Read single table line
    • MODIFY <itab> from <structure>: Modify an existing table line
    • DELETE TABLE <itab> FROM <structure>: Deletes line of the table
    • COLLECT: Accumulate structure content with same key
  72. 3 statements to delete the complete content of an internal table
    • REFRESH (Obsolet): With header line (Part of previous used memory remains available)
    • CLEAR: Like REFRESH, but only deletes header line when table with header line
    • FREE: Also releases all used memory
  73. 5 mandatory information points a transparent table contains in the Dictionary
    • Key fields
    • Expected table size
    • Expected frequency of access
    • Secondary indexes
    • Buffering options
  74. 3 Types of reuse components that encapsulate database access
    • Logical database
    • Function modules
    • Methods of global classes
  75. 4 Keywords in a OPEN-SQL SELECT statement
    • SELECT: names the fields to be read
    • FROM: name of the source table/view
    • INTO: target variable to be written to
    • WHERE: columns to be selected
  76. 3 Characteristics of sequential search in database tables
    • Searching for non key fields
    • Worst-Case is to read the complete table
    • Wait time for next database access can be very long
  77. 3 Details necessary for a table join
    • Join tables
    • Join conditions
    • Join columns
  78. 5 Standard functions for ABAP lists
    • SAVE
    • PRINT
    • SCROLL
  79. 6 Standard functions of a selection screen
    • Multi-language texts
    • Any type of input field possible
    • Complex selections
    • F1 field help for dictionary based input fields
    • F4 value help for input fields
    • Save selections as variants
  80. Events of an ABAP Selection Screen Report
    • INITIALIZATION: Pre-Assign default values
    • AT SELECTION-SCREEN: Input and authorization check
    • START-OF-SELECTION: Select data
  81. 6 Event block characteristics
    • Introduced with an event keyword
    • Endy by beginning next block
    • Cannot be nested
    • Existence not absolutely necessary
    • Sequence unimportant
    • Implicit Standard event: START-OF-SELECTION
  82. 3 Initial screen areas of the Code Inspector
    • Check Variant: Checks to perform
    • Object Set: Repository objects to check
    • Inspection: Refers to the actual inspection
  83. 6 Important Code Inspector checks
    • General: Data formatting
    • Performance: Analysis of DB-statements
    • Security: Auth-checks and critical DB-statements
    • Syntax and Generation: Syntax and program check
    • Programming Conventions: Naming conventions
    • Search Functions: Searches for tokens and ABAP statements
  84. 2 Ways to use the Code Inspector
    • Transaction SCI: Select own check variant
    • Context Menu of Object Navigator: Check Variant DEFAULT is started
  85. 5 Fields of System Structure BDCDATA for calling transactions/programs in source code
    • PROGRAM: Program to call
    • DYNPRO: Screen number
    • DYNBEGIN: First record of screen Yes/no
    • FNAM: Field name
    • FVAL: Field value (Case sensitive)
  86. 3 Modes when calling a transaction in source code
    • A: Process with screens
    • E: Display screens only if error occurs
    • N: Process without screens
  87. 4 Ways to leave to another program from source code
    • CALL TRANSACTION: Does not end current program
    • LEAVE TO TRANSACTION: Ends the current program
    • SUBMIT: Ends the current program
    • SUBMIT ... AND RETURN: Does not end the current program
  88. 2 Situations when the system generates the LOAD
    • Program is called and load does not exist yet
    • LOAD in database or program buffer is obsolete
  89. 4 Characteristics of the LOAD
    • Runtime object for executable repository objects
    • Consists of bytecode statements linked to C functions
    • Can be generated explicitely
    • Saved in database or program buffer
  90. 2 Conditions for a LOAD to be considered obsolete
    • Developed version of the Repository object is changed
    • Dictionary Objects the program uses are changed
  91. 4 Characteristics of the inactive version of a program
    • No effect on the LOAD
    • Syntax does not have to be correct
    • Only editable version
    • LOAD is not stored or buffered
  92. 6 Steps that occur when activating an object
    • Object is saved
    • Syntax is checked
    • Inactive version is created
    • Current active version is overwritten
    • Runtime version is created
    • LOAD is updated
  93. 4 Non-modifiable parts of a program
    • Byte code for statements
    • Values of constants and literals
    • Program texts
    • Screen definitions
  94. 4 Characteristics of the Program execution area (PXA)
    • Stores non-modifiable program parts
    • Bufferes program bytecode to the maximum
    • Shared memory for ALL users
    • Exists only once on each server
  95. 2 Characteristics of the Roll Area
    • Stores modifiable program parts (Data objects = variables)
    • Each program execution has its own roll area
  96. 2 Types of sessions in a SAP system
    • External: Corresponds to a SAP GUI window
    • Internal: Generated for each program execution -> one reserved roll area
  97. 4 Characteristics of a program group
    • Groups programs within an internal session
    • Contains one main program
    • Divided in Main and Additional program groups
    • Differen program groups do not share data objects
  98. 4 Actions that occur when a program is called from source code with SUBMIT
    • End calling program (Delete from stack)
    • System deletes internal session (top stack entry)
    • System creates new internal session
    • Top stack entry is replaced
  99. 2 Actions that occur when a program is called from source code with LEAVE TO TRANSACTION
    • Stack for internal sessions and ABAP memory is initialized
    • System creates new internal session
  100. Hierarchy of memory areas of a user session from top to bottom
    • 1: SAP memory
    • 2: External session
    • 3: ABAP memory
    • 4: Internal session
    • 5: Program group
    • 6: PXA and Roll area
  101. 2 Cases when an additional program group is created
    • Call function module which has a not yet loaded function group
    • Call method of global class that has not been loaded yet
  102. 3 shared interface work areas within a program group
    • TABLES
    • NODES
  103. 5 common techniques of passing data between programs
    • Interface of the called program
    • ABAP memory
    • SAP memory
    • Database tables
    • Local files on client
  104. 4 Characteristics of the SAP memory
    • User-specific memory area for field values
    • Not useful for passing data between internal sessions
    • Use for default screen values
    • Exists during a user session
  105. 3 Characteristics of the ABAP memory
    • User-specific memory for each external session (window)
    • Exchange data between the internal sessions
    • Initialized when external session (windows) is closed
  106. 3 steps of usage of the ABAP memory
    • Write to memory: EXPORT <name> FROM <data> TO MEMORY ID <id>
    • Read from memory: IMPORT <name> FROM <data> FROM MEMORY ID <id>
    • Release memory: FREE MEMORY ID <id>
  107. 3 Ways to define memory areas in the SAP memory
    • Create input/output fields with reference to Dictionary
    • SET / GET PARAMETER ID <id> FIELD <var>
    • Define parameters in Object navigator
  108. 2 possible types of boxed components
    • Substructures of nested structures
    • Structured attributes of classes and interfaces
  109. 3 characteristics of initial value sharing of boxed structure components
    • Boxed component is represented by a reference
    • As long as boxed component is initial, reference points to initial structure in PXA
    • As class attribute, all boxed components share the initial value
  110. 3 operations that revoke the initial value sharing of a boxed component
    • Write access to the static box
    • Used as a actual parameter for procedure calls
    • Address the static box with data reference or field symbol
  111. 3 Use Cases and the corresponding advantage for boxed components
    • Component often remains initial: Memory savings
    • Component is not too small: Reference has 8 byte Overhead
    • Component is used often: Memory savings scale with count of initial components
  112. 2 ways to define boxed components
    • Inside classes: DATA <data> TYPE <type> BOXED
    • Outside classes: TYPES ... <component> BOXED.
  113. 2 characteristics of the OPEN CURSOR statement
    • Defines and executes DB access
    • Does not pass data to the application
  114. 2 processing steps of the FETCH NEXT CURSOR statement
    • retrieves desired number of lines (package size)
    • passes data to the application
  115. 3 steps/statements when using explicit cursors
    • OPEN CURSOR: Execute DB access without data passing
    • FETCH NEXT CURSOR: Passing data with given package size
    • CLOSE CURSOR: Complete database access
  116. 3 characteristics of the cursor variable
    • Typed with special type CURSOR
    • Identifies the database access
    • stores position in result set of db access
  117. 2 Prerequisites when ordering by primary key
    • FROM clause contains single table (no views/joins)
    • Field list after SELECT contains all key fields (incl. CLIENT)
  118. Restrictions for the ORDER BY statement
    • Not valid for pooled and clustered tables
    • Sort columns must be part of the result set
    • Not valid for fields of type LCHAR, LRAW, STRING and RAWSTRING
  119. 2 Restrictions for the SELECT DISTINCT statement
    • Not valid when types LCHAR, LRAW, STRING or RAWSTRING are used
    • Select all columns when using pooled or clustered tables
  120. 5 Available aggregate functions supported by OPEN-SQL
    • MIN( col ): Minimum value
    • MAX( col ): Maximum value
    • SUM( col ): Sum of (only numeric) column contents in result set
    • AVG( col ): Arithmetic average of (only numeric) column contents
    • COUNT( * ) or COUNT( DISTINCT col ): Count of rows in result set
  121. 3 characteristics of OPEN SQL aggregate functions
    • Perform calculations on specified column in SELECT statement
    • Determine values of multiple rows of a column in a db table
    • Calculation is performed in the DB system
  122. 3 Restrictions for the GROUP BY statement
    • SELECT * is not allowed - only individual columns
    • No pooled or cluster tables
    • No grouping by fields of type STRING or RAWSTRING
  123. 2 possibilities to implement database joins
    • Create a View
    • ABAP Joins
  124. 4 Restrictions for outer joins
    • Only a table or view to the right of join expression
    • Only AND as operator in the ON condition
    • Comparison in ON Condition must contain a field of the right table
    • Fields of right table cannot appear in WHERE of left outer join
  125. characteristics of a database view in the dictionary
    • Reusage in several programs
    • Usage for lists and search functions
    • Buffer like tables
    • Common fields of both tables are only transported once
    • Inner join - data transfer only if inner table contains entries
  126. 2 Prerequisites of parallel cursors
    • Both tables sorted by same criteria
    • Records of outer table must specify exact count of records in inner table
  127. 4 Characteristics of the FOR ALL ENTRIES Addition
    • Reads all entries of the given table
    • Reads complete table, if filter table is blank
    • Buplicates in filter table are ignored automatically
    • Not recommended for large datasets
Card Set
Workbench Fundamentals
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