# Electricity Chapter 10

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1. Electricty
A form of energy that results from the interactions of charged particles such as electrons and protons.
2. Static Charge
Electric charge that remains static (doesn't move)/builds up.
3. Charging by Friction
• Involves the transfer of electric charges by rubbing/friction.
• E.g. socks on carpet or combing hair
4. Electric Series
• Used to determine the kind of electric charge produces on each substance when two substances are rubbed together.
• Refer to page 405 of the textbook for the table.
• Substances high on the table lose electrons and are positively charged.
• Substances low on the table hold onto electrons and are negatively charged.
• The closer two substances are on the table the weaker the ability to transfer electrons will be.
5. Insulator
• A material in which particles cannot move freely between atoms.
• Wood, rubber, PURE water.
6. Conductor
• A material in which particle can move freely between atoms.
• Metals (copper, aluminium), NOT PURE (with dissolved minerals) water.
7. Semiconductor
• A material in which particles can move with some degree of freeness between atoms.
• Silicon.
8. Ground
• Ground has a very large number of charges.
• Can make a charged object neutral by supplying or removing electrons.
• Ground always remain neutral due to the number of electrons
9. Electroscope
• A device that detects the presence of an electrical charge.
• Pith ball electroscope
• Metal leaf electroscope
10. Charging by Contact
• Generating a charge on a neutral object by touching it with a charged object.
• An object that gets charged by contact always gets the same charge as the object that charged it.
• Positively charged objects will turn a neutral object positive.
• The most that can happen to the first object is that it can turn neutral but that is unlikely.
• Examples in notes if needed
11. Law of Electric Charges
• Laws that describe how to objects interact electrically.
• Also, a neutral object will attracted to a charged object.
12. Electric Field
• The property of the space around a charged object,where the effect of its charge can be felt by other objects.
• An electric field produces an electric force on any other objects that are in the field.Objects with greater net charges have stronger electric fields.
• The greater the distance from the charged object the weaker the electric field on the object is.
13. Induces Charge Separation
The movement of electrons in a substance caused by the electric field of a nearby charge object, without direct contact between the substance and the object.
14. Ion
A positivity or negatively charged atom or group of atoms.
15. Lightning Rod
A metal sphere or point that is attached to the highest part of the building and is connected to the ground.
16. Electrostatic Precipitator
A type of cleaner that removes all the unwanted particles and liquid droplets from a flow of gas.
17. Van de Graaff Generator
A devices that accumulates very large charges.