Criminial justice chpt 2
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A violation of societal rules of behavior as interpreted and expressed by a criminal legal code created by people hoding social and politicial power.
Uniform crime Report (UCR)
The FBI's yearly publication of where, when , and how much serious crime occurred in prior year.
Official crime statistics
Compiled reports, these are a tally of serious crimes reported to police agencies each year
Part 1 crimes
The eight crimes for which, because of their seriousness and frequency, the FBI reports their incidence in its annual Uniform Crime Reports.
Part 2 crimes
All other crimes except the eight part 1 crimes. The FBI records all arrests made for part 2 crimes,including race, gender, and age information.
National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS)
The ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the justice Department and the U.S. Census Bureau that surveys victims about their experiences with law violation.
Self Report survey
A research appraoch that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in diliquent or criminal acts.
racial threat hypothesis
The view that the percentage of minorites in the population shapes the level of plice activity.
The view that extreme social economic differences among people living in the same community exacerbate criminal activity.
Broken windows hypothesis
The view that deteriorated communities attract criminal activity.
a delinquent offender who is arrested five or more times before he or she is 18 and who stands a good chance of becoming an adult criminal; these offenders are sresponsible for more than half of all serious crimes.
Rational choice theory
People will engage in delinquent and criminial behavoir after weighing the consequences and benefits of their actions.
Human behavior is a function of the interaction of biochemical, neurological, and genetic factos with enviormental stimuli.
Criminials are driven by unconscious thought patterns, developed in early childhood, that control behaviors over the life course.
A psychological condition marked by mood swings between pariods of wild elation and deep depression.
Social learning theory
Behavior patterns are modeled and learned in interaction with others.
Antiscoial (sociopathic psychopathic) personality
Individuls who are always in trouble and do not learn from either experience or punishment
Social structure theory
A persons position in the social structure controls his or her behavior.
Culture of poverty
The crushing lifestyle of slum areas produces a culture of poverty, passed from on generation to the next, marked by apathy, cynicism, feelings of helplessness, and mistrust of social institutions, such as schools, goverment agencies, and the police.
A substratum of society that maintains a unique set of values and beliefs.
The passing of cultural values from one generation to the next.
Social process theory
An individuals behavoir is shaped by interactions with key social insitutions family, schools, peer-group, and the like.
Social Conflict theory
Human behavoir is shapedby interpersonal conflict, and those who maintian social power use it to furthure their own interests.
Social interactions that are developed over the life course shape behavior.
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