PSYH 151- Chapter 7

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PSYH 151- Chapter 7
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2014-10-07 21:03:21
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PSYH 151- Chapter 7
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  1. A relatively permanent change in behavior due to experience
    learning
  2. An approach to psychology that emphasizes the study of observable behavior and the role of the environment and prior experience as determinants of behavior
    Behaviorism
  3. A basic kind of learning that involves associations among environmental stimuli and an organism's behavior
    Conditioning
  4. The classical-conditioning term for a stimulus that already elicits a certain response without additional learning
    unconditioned stimulus (US)
  5. The classical-conditioning term for a response elicited by and unconditioned stimulus
    Unconditioned Response (UR)
  6. The classical-conditioning term for an initially neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after being associated with an unconditioned stimulus
    Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
  7. The classical-conditioning term for a response that is elicited by a conditioned stimulus; it occurs after the conditioned stimulus is associated with an unconditioned stimulus
    Conditioned Response (CR)
  8. The process by which a previously neutral stimulus becomes associated with a stimulus that already elicits a response and, in turn, acquires the capacity to elicit a similar or related response
    Classical conditioning
  9. Aka Pavlovian or respondent conditioning
    Classical Conditioning
  10. The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in classical conditioning, it occurs when the conditioned stimulus is no longer paired with the unconditioned stimulus
    Extinction
  11. The reappearance of a learned response after its apparent extinction
    Spontaneous Recovery
  12. In classical conditioning, a procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus through association with an already established conditioned stimulus
    Higher-order conditioning
  13. After conditioning, the tendency to respond to a stimulus that resembles one involved in the original conditioning; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus that resembles the CS elicits the CR
    Stimulus generalization
  14. the tendency to respond differently to two or more similar stimuli; in classical conditioning, it occurs when a stimulus similar to the CS fails to evoke the CR
    Stimulus Discrimination
  15. In classical conditioning, the process of pairing a conditioned stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response that is incompatible with an unwanted conditioned response
    Counterconditioning
  16. After Jeff learns to fear spiders, he also responds with fear to ants, beetles, and other crawling bugs
    Stimulus generalization
  17. The process by which a response becomes more likely to occur or less so, depending on its consequences
    operant conditioning
  18. The process by which a stimulus or event strengthens or increases the probability of the response that it follows
    Reinforcement
  19. The process by which a stimulus event weakens or reduces the probability of the response that it follows
    punishment
  20. A stimulus that is inherently reinforcing, typically satisfying a physiological need; an example is food
    Primary reinforcer
  21. A stimulus that is inherently punishing; an example is electric shock
    Primary Punisher
  22. A stimulus that has acquired reinforcing properties through association with other reinforcers
    Secondary Reinforcer
  23. A stimulus that has acquired punishing properties through association with other punishers
    Secondary Punisher
  24. A positive reinforcement in which a response is followed by the removal, delay, or decrease in intensity of an unpleasant stimulus; as a result, the response becomes stronger or more likely to occur
    Negative Reinforcement
  25. The weakening and eventual disappearance of a learned response; in operant conditioning, it occurs when a response in no longer followed by a reinforcer
    extinction
  26. In operant conditioning, the tendency for a response that has been reinforced in the presence of one stimulus to occur in the presence of other similar stimuli
    Stimulus generalization
  27. In operant conditioning, the tendency of a response to occur in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of other similar stimuli that differ from it on some dimension
    Stimulus discrimination
  28. A stimulus that signals when a particular response is likely to be followed by a certain type of consequence
    discriminative stimulus
  29. A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is always reinforced
    Continuous Reinforcement
  30. A reinforcement schedule in which a particular response is sometimes but not always reinforced
    Intermittent (partial) schedule of reinforcement
  31. An operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced
    shaping
  32. In the operant-conditioning procedure of shaping, behaviors that are ordered in terms of increasing similarity or closeness to the desired response
    Successive approximations
  33. During operant learning, the tendency for an organism to revert to instinctive behavior
    Instinctive drift
  34. The application of operant-conditioning techniques to teach new responses or to reduce or eliminate maladaptive or problematic behavior
    behavior modification
  35. also called applied behavior analysis
    Behavior Modification
  36. Reinforcers that are not inherently related to the activity being reinforced
    Extrinsic reinforcers
  37. Reinforcers that are inherently related to the activity being reinforced
    Intrinsic reinforcers
  38. A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement
    Latent learning
  39. Theories that emphasize how behavior is learned and maintained through observation and imitation of others, positive consequences, and cognitive processes such as plans, expectations, and beliefs
    Social-cognitive theories
  40. A process by which an individual learns new responses by observing the behavior of another rather than through direct experience
    Observational learning
  41. Sometimes called vicarious conditioning
    observational learning
  42. A friend asks you to meet her at a new restaurant across town. You have never been to this specific address, but you find your way there anyway because you have experienced __________ learning
    laten
  43. After watching her teenage sister put on lipstick, a little girl takes a lipstick and applies it to her own lips. She has acquired this behavior through a process of _______________   _________.
    observational learning

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