PSYH 151- Chapter 8

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HPizir
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285178
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PSYH 151- Chapter 8
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2014-10-13 15:24:58
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PSYH 151 Chapter
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PSYH 151- Chapter 8
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  1. Rules that regulate social life, including explicit laws and implicit cultural conventions
    Norms (social)
  2. A given social position that is governed by a set of norms for proper behavior
    Role
  3. A program of shared rules that govern the behavior of people in a community or society, and a set of values, beliefs and customs shared by most members of that community
    Culture
  4. A gradual process in which individuals escalate their commitment to a course of action to justify their investment of time, money, of effort
    Entrapment
  5. An area in social psychology concerned with social influences on thought, memory, perception, and beliefs
    Social cognition
  6. The theory that people are motivated to explain their own and other people's behavior by attributing causes of that behavior to a situation or a disposition
    Attribution Theory
  7. The tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation
    Fundamental attribution error
  8. The notion that many people need to believe that the world is fair and that justice is served that bad people are punished and good people are rewarded
    Just-world hypothesis
  9. A state of tension that occurs when a person simultaneously holds two cognitions that are psychologically inconsistent or when a person's belief is incongruent with his or her behavior
    cognitive dissonance
  10. The tendency of people to feel more positive toward a person, item, product, or other stimulus the more familiar they are with it
    Familiarity effect
  11. The tendency of people to believe that a statement is true or valid simply because it has been repeated many times
    validity effect
  12. The tendency for all members of a group to think alike for the sake of harmony and to suppress disagreement
    groupthink
  13. In groups, the tendency of members to avoid taking action because they assume that others will
    Diffusion of responsibility
  14. In groups or crowds, the loss of awareness of one's own individuality
    deindividuation
  15. The part of a person's self-concept that is based on his or her identification with a nation, religious or political group, occupation, or other affiliation
    Social identity
  16. A person's identification with a racial or ethnic group
    ethnic identity
  17. The process by which members of minority groups come to identify with and feel part of the mainstream culture
    Acculturation
  18. the belief that one's own ethnic group, nation, or religion is superior to all others
    ethnocentrism
  19. A summary impression of a group, in which a person believes that all members of the group share a common trait or traits
    Stereotype
  20. A strong, unreasonable dislike or hatred of a group, based on a negative stereotype
    Prejudice
  21. reflects active dislike for women
    hostile sexism
  22. Puts women on a special pedestal
    benevolent sexism
  23. a possible behavioral expression of prejudice, a reluctance to get "too close" to another group
    Social distance
  24. prejudice declines when people have the chance to get used to another group's rules, food, customs, and attitudes, thereby discovering their shared interests and humanity and learning those people are in fact alike
    Contact Hypothesis
  25. individuals often fail to take action or call for help when  they see someone in trouble because they assume that someone else will do so
    bystander apathy
  26. the fact that a crowds judgement is often more accurate than that of its individual members
    "wisdom of crowds"
  27. the willingness to take selfless of dangerous actions on behalf of others
    altruism

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