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1. The Renaissance in Italy
A. the Italian states thrived because of ____ trade; wealth allowed for patronage which lead to cultural Renaissance.
B. Renaissance-transition from Medieval to ____ times.
1. Middle Ages - fragmented ____ society with agricultural economy; ____ dominated thought and culture.
2. Renaissance was charachterized by a growing ____ consciousness, an urban economy based on organized ____ and capitalism and there was a movement towards secular thought and culture.
3. Two events sparked the Renaissance
a. death of Petrarch - the father of ____ and the death of Boccaccio; thereafter civic humanism spread throughout Italy and into ____ Europe.
C. The Italian city-state
1. geography - natural ____ between east and west.
a. ____ rich cities became powerful city-states that dominated political and economic life.
2. growth of city-states
a. propapal and proimperial forces fought and weakened each other allowing for ____ to dominate the state.
b. 5 major states - Dutch of Milan, Republic of Florence, Venice, the Papal states, and Kingdom of Naples.
3. Social Class and conflict
a. "grandi"-old rich; ____ and nobles
b. "popolo grosso"-____ rich; capitalists and bankers
c. middle-burgher; guild masters, shop owners and pros
d. "popolo minuto" - ____
1. Ciompi Revolt - uprising of the poor fueled by the feuding between old rich and new rich, the ____, and the collapse of the great banking houses- Bandi and Peruzzi
4. despotism and diplomacy - to ____ internal social conflict and foriegn intrigue from paralyzing the cities, dominat groups hired ____ or despots known as podesta to maintain law and order and allow buisness to flourish
a. operated through ____ armies known as condottieri
b. led to the ____ of diplomacy - vreated embassies and had ambassadors.
- lower class
- black death
D. Humanism-the study of the Latin and ____ classics and of the ancient Church fathers for its own sake and to ____ norms and values
1. advocated studia humanitatis - liberal arts program of study
a. the byzantine scholar Manuel Chrysolaras opened up the world of Greek scholarship to Italien humanists by teaching in Florence. ____ coined the term humanitas
b. this revival in culture was more ____ , had broader interests, had more reference material, and the people involved had far superior technical skills than earlier rebirths.
c. these intellectuals connected classical and modern thought to end the ____.
2. Great Humanists
a. Petrarch - father of humanism; lived around Avignon; wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead, Africa, and lives of Illustrious Men.
b. ____ - wrote Vita Nuovo and Divine Comedy; along with Petrarch formed the cornerstone of vernacular literature.
c. Giovanni Boccaccio - wrote Decameron and assembled Greek and Roman ____
- Leonardo Bruni
- Dark Ages
- Dante Alighieri
Alliance between Milan, Naples, and Florence against the papal states
Treaty of Lodi
Foolishly sought the assistence of the french when milan was threatened by naples
Milanese despot Ludovico
Charles VII through Italy
- conquers Florence, the papal states, and Naples
- exiles Medici
- league of Venice forms to counter(united Italians)
Who uses political manuvering to give the French control of romagna
the warrior pope
Pope Julius II beat the french out of Italy, gained papal states
Concordat of Bologna gave
the french king control over French clergy
who wrote the prince, italy political unity
what weakened the nobility and the church
- Hundred years War
- Black Death
- Great Schism
Moanrch began to create standing national armies with
Monarchs made money through
Who helped develop French strong economy
French financial minister Jacques Coeur
What French king conquer Charles the Bold and Brugundy
Compare Renaissance vs Northern
- more diverse social backgrounds
- more devoted to religious reform
- wrote for lat audiences
Johann Gutenberg creates the _____ with movable type
Who laid the egg that luther hatched
Works of Erasmus
- Colloquies-anticlerical and satirical religious dogmas
- philosophia Christi
father of German Humanism
who united humanism in germany
- Conrad celtics
- Ulrich von Hutten
best known english humanist
sir thomas more
A. the portuguese chart the course
1. Prince Henry "the navigator" began the portuguese exploration of the _____ coast; first for gold and slaves then to connect Europe to Asia's _____ _____.
2. Bartolomew Dias pioneered the _____ portuguese empire.
3. Vasco de Gama pushed the eastern empire to India allowing Portugal to challenge the _____/_____ spice trade.
- spice market
B. The Spanish Voyages of Columbus
1. Christopher Columbus landed in San Salvador in the Eastern Bahamas; he met friendly native peoples known as the _____ Indians.
2. Amergio Vespucci and Ferdinand Magellan explored the _____ of South America and onto the Pacific Ocean
a. Magellan's crew was the first to _____ the globe.
3. Intended and Unintended consequences
a. the Spanish had a zeal for conquering and _____ non-Christian peoples.
b. the trading black created enriched Spain and gave them a commanding role in the _____ _____ wars of the 16th and 17th centuries along with fueling a Europe wide expansion.
c. _____ _____ - movement of food, animals, disease, goods, and slaves from the Old World to the New World and back.
- religious and political
- Columbian Exchange
C. The Spanish Empire in the New World
1. The Aztec Empire dominated _____
a. from their capital at Tenochtitlan they ruled a vast wealthy empire; policies of demanding _____ _____ from subservient people led to bitter resentment.
b. Hernan Cortes ended the Aztec empire and declared it _____ _____.
2. Inca Empire in Peru - second largest empire in the Americas; conquered by Francisco _____.
3. A small _____ military force with advanced weapons were able to destroy two great empires.
a. New European _____ also helped Europeans conquer and dominate South America.
4. Besides the conquest of the Incas and Aztecs being two of the most _____ events in human history it marked a fundamental turning point in the New World in which South America became _____ _____.
- heavy tribute
- New Spain
- Latin America
D. The Church in Spanish America
1. early clergy sought to not only _____ native peoples but also to bring them European learning an civilization
a. bartolome de le Casas _____ against Spanish conquest of native peoples
b. "Black Legend" - exaggerated the harsh treatment of native peoples by the Spanish; _____ native peoples.
- spoke out
E. The Economy of Exploitation
1. forced labor was needed to _____ from mining, agriculture, and shipping.
a. mining focused on _____ and silver; the Spanish crown received 1/5 of all mining revenues.
b. agriculture built around the hacienda - large _____ owned by Peninsulars or Creoles and worked on by laborers
1. subordinate to mining
2. large _____ existed on the islands of the Caribbean
2. labor servitude
a. encomienda - right to the _____ of native peoples
b. repartimiendo - a labor tax requiring native peoples to work so many _____ annually
c. debt peonage - "free workers" were required to _____ all materials from mine owners
d. black slavery - used on sugar plantains in the _____ and Brazil
- landed estate
- West Indies
F. Impact on Europe
1. Columbus' discovery demonstrated the folly of relying on any fixed body of presumed _____ knowledge; opened a new age of communication and _____.
2. Influx of bullion into European economies led to _____
New government wealth led to sponsoring _____ and expnasion in printing, shipping, mining, _____, and the weapons industry.
4. rise in capitalism - intended to _____ the free and efficient accumulation of wealth
a. new wealth _____ the traditional social divisions between varying social groups paving the way for the Reformation.