Social Psychology Quiz #3

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Anonymous
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285191
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Social Psychology Quiz #3
Updated:
2014-10-07 23:43:25
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socialpsych ualbany
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chapters 3+4
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  1. attitude
    An evaluation of the social world
  2. three components of an attitude
    • - affect (feelings)
    • - behavior (inclination to act)
    • - cognitions (beliefs, thoughts)
  3. when do attitudes predict behavior most accurately
    when the attitude is specific
  4. when are you more likely to act on something
    when you have a vested interest (changing legal drinking age)
  5. self-perception theory
    • we infer our attitudes from our behaviors
    • ex. do i like green? most of my clothes are and so is my couch... i guess so
  6. Chaiken and Baldwin (1981)
    • participants had consistent or inconsistent environmental views
    • conclusion: participants who had inconsistent views were more likely to change their views based on their responses
  7. cognitive dissonance theory
    • "the motive to reduce inconsistencies in cognitions"
    • a feeling of discomfort caused by performing an action that is inconsistent with one's attitudes
  8. dissonance between behavior and a belief
    • - cognition about a behavior: I smoke
    • - cognition about an attitude: smoking is dangerous
  9. how do you get rid of dissonance
    • 1. change cognition about behavior
    • 2. change cognition about attitude
    • 3. add consonant cognitions
  10. insufficient justification
    • "changing attitudes to justify unrewarding actions"¬†
    • getting someone to do something they don't want to do for no reason at all
  11. insufficient justification with getting paid $20 for boring task vs. getting paid $1
    • when paid $20, task was said to be boring
    • when paid $1, task was sad to be fun
    • conclusion: we change attitudes to justify unrewarded actions
  12. effort justification
    • "changing attitudes to justify effortful actions"
    • when effort is exerted, people change their attitudes to "justify" that effort
  13. decision justification
    • "changing attitudes to justify past decisions"
    • more certain about something after they have committed to it
  14. social cognition
    • how we interpret, analyze, remember, and use information about the social world
    • ways of managing "social data"
  15. three areas of research
    • schemas
    • heuristics
    • atrrributions
  16. schemas
    mental structures that allow us to organize information in an efficient manner
  17. heuristics
    shortcuts and strategies we use in order to make sense out of the social world
  18. attributions
    how we make judgments about behaviors
  19. why use schemas
    • focus attention and memory
    • helps "go beyond the data"
    • guides affect
  20. schema based distortions
    • misremembering - seeing things that are not there
    • first impressions - the primary effect
    • polarization - biases that exist in your mind
  21. 'hostile media phenomenon"
    two sides read article, each one thinks it is anti-their side
  22. self-fulfilling prophecies
    • we can make our schemas come true based on our behavior
    • have an expectation about a person or situation
    • this expectation influences how you act
    • ex. children who were told they had potential to have higher IQ, did at end of year then those who did not
  23. availability heuristic
    • basing a decision on the ease of thinking
    • it is easier to think of airplane crashes than car accidents, so we think we are much more likely to due in a plane crash
  24. self-judgments and availability
    • (easy) think of 6 times you were assertive
    • (hard) think of 12 times you were assertive
    • when it is easy to think of times you were assertive, you think you are assertive and vice versa
  25. repressiveness heuristic
    • basing a judgment on "typically" or resemblance
    • blonde student with dark tan and mellow personality who likes to go to the beach - is he from california?
  26. shortcomings of representativeness
    • people tend to put too much weight on typicality
    • ignore more "diagnostic" information
  27. anchoring
    • answer depends on how the question is asked
    • - is the population over 100,0000
    • - is the population under 1,000,000
  28. attribution theory
    • a description of the way in which people explain the causes of their own and other people's behavior
    • negative events lead to a much greater search for reasons than positive events
  29. why are attributions important
    • different attributions cause you to draw different conclusions
    • man pushing women in front of library - is it playful or aggression and should they assume they are dating or call the cops
  30. locus of causality
    most important judgment is what the cause is
  31. internal attribution (person attribution)
    cause is internal to the person, such as personality traits, moods, abilities, efforts, or attitudes
  32. external attribution (situational attribution)
    cause is external to the person, such as actions of others, nature of the situation, or luck
  33. how we determine attribtions
    • actual cause is unimportant in making attributions, what we think determines our actions
    • primarily interested in when people make an dispositional attribution or an external attribution
  34. covariation model
    • distinctiveness (person's behavior unique to that situation)
    • consistency (person's behavior stable across situations)
    • consensus (would other people do the same thing in the same situation)
  35. fundamental attribution error
    • tendency to attribute other's behavior to corresponding dispositions
    • behavior reveals dispositions¬†
    • a failure to discount situational causes
    • ex. when you raise your hand if you are given 5 extra pts to say you want the drinking age to be 25, people tend to think you actually want the drinking age to be 25
    • we should not draw a correspondent inference from the behavior but we tend to
  36. Jones and Harris (1967)
    • people read a positive article about Castro and half were told the author did it by free will and other half told author had no choice
    • the people who were told the author had no choice still thought that those were the authors views
    • fundamental attribution error
  37. self-serving bias
    • good dispositions, bad situations
    • take credit for positive behaviors/outcomes
    • blame negative behaviors/outcomes on external factors

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