Public speaking midterm

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  1. define frame of reference
    the lens through which you view the world
  2. unconscious incompetence
    • unaware of making errors
    • unaware that some skills must be learned
    • ex- twirling hair, coughing etc
  3. conscious incompetence
    • aware of errors made
    • aware of needing to improve
    • causes anxiety which increases incompetence
    • ex- knowing you grab your shirt etc and trying to stop
  4. conscious incompetence
    • worked on improving specific areas
    • now must work on performing competently
    • practice makes perfect
  5. unconscious competence
    • improved skill and competence
    • performance is effortless
    • no longer need to be conscious of the area(s)
  6. 7 key elements to public speaking
    • delivery: plan and practice your performance
    • purpose: determine your speaking goal
    • audience: connect with your audience
    • credibility: enhance your believability
    • logistics: adapt to the setting and occasion
    • content: select appropriate ideas and information
    • organization: strategically organize your content
  7. Aristotle's definition of rhetoric
    the ability to find in any situation the available means of persuasion
  8. dictionary definitions of rhetoric (2)
    • the art of effective or persuasive speaking or writing
    • language designed to have a persuasive or impressive effect on its audience
  9. theoretical foundations of public speaking (4)
    • Oral Culture: preliterate society, Illiad and Odyssey
    • Classical rhetoric: ancient greece, taught people persuasive speeches (Plato, Aristotle, Augustine, Socrates) 
    • Communication studies: focused on sending effective messages, constantly sending and receiving messages
    • Dialogic theories: give and take, engaged with audience, goal is mutual understanding
  10. affirmations
    personal statements that describe your motivation, focus, and positive thoughts about yourself
  11. cognitive restructuring
    transform unrealistic beliefs about speaking into realistic expectations
  12. communication apprehension
    • fear of communicating with another person or persons. can occur in a variety of contexts like group discussion, meetings, and public speaking
    • has direct physical effects that impact your communication
  13. speaking anxiety
    a speaker's individual level of fear or anxiety associated with either real or anticipated communication to a group of people or an audience
  14. systematic desensitization
    behavioral therapy to help clients cope with phobias and serious anxieties. combine deep muscle relaxation with various images of speaking
  15. visualization
    a procedure that encourages people to think positively about speaking by taking them through the entire speechmaking process
  16. about ___ to ___ percent of the US population experiences speaking anxiety when faced with the prospect of speaking to an audience
    75 to 85 percent
  17. Types of speeches
    informative, persuasive, entertainment, inspirational
  18. informative speech
    provides new information, explains complex terms and processes, and/or clarifies and corrects misunderstood information
  19. persuasive speech
    attempts to change audience opinions and/or behaviors
  20. entertainment speeches
    tries to amuse, interest, divert, or "warm up" an audience
  21. inspirational speeches
    • brings like-minded people together, creates social unity, builds goodwill, or celebrates by arousing audience emotions
    • toasts, eulogies, motivational, introductions of a speaker
  22. public purpose
    the publicly stated goal of your speech
  23. private purpose
    the personal goal of your speech
  24. the 4Rs method
    • review: analyze and identify the ideas and information you want as "keepers"
    • reduce: boil down the "keepers" to the most essential points
    • regroup: group "keepers" into major categories (your key points)
    • Refine: refine the key points to make them interesting and memorable
  25. Types of supporting material
    facts, statistics, testimony, definitions, analogies, descriptions, examples, stories, audio and visual aids
  26. Types of outline arrangements
    topical, time, problem-solution, space, cause-effect, scientific method, stories and examples, comparison-contrast
  27. goals of the introduction
    make the beginning interesting for the audience, establish your credibility, preview your main points
  28. goals of the conclusion
    make your ending memorable, summarize main points, smile and sit down:)
  29. ways to begin a speech
    • topic-specific: rely on topic-related supporting material to capture attention, gain interest, enhance the speaker's credibility, focus on the topic, and set the appropriate mood
    • situation-specific: rely on speaker's adapting to the interests and concern of a specific audience in a particular setting or situation
  30. primacy effect
    tendency to recall the first items we see or hear in sequenced information
  31. recency effect
    tendency to recall the last items we see or hear in sequenced information
  32. language
    system of arbitrary signs and symbols used to communicate thoughts and feelings
  33. CORE Speaking Styles
    • C- clear style
    • O- oral style
    • R- rhetorical style
    • E- eloquent
  34. stylistic devices
    repetition, similes/metaphors, analogies, contrast, personification, alliteration and rhyme, lists of three
  35. four forms of delivery
    • impromptu: off the top of your head
    • extemporaneous: a little pre-planning
    • manuscript: completely scripted
    • memorized: no script
  36. vocal delivery
    breath, volume, rate, pitch, fluency, articulation, pronunciation, accents and dialects
  37. physical delivery
    eye contact, facial expression, gestures, posture and movement
  38. informative speech
    provides new information, explains complex concepts and processes, and/or clarifies and corrects misunderstood information
  39. four types of informative messages
    • reporting new information
    • clarifying difficult terms
    • explaining quasi-scientific phenomena
    • overcoming confusion and misunderstanding
Card Set:
Public speaking midterm
2014-10-08 08:24:38
public speaking
public speaking
COM 204 midterm
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