lab value

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tatekj
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285202
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lab value
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2014-10-08 01:21:09
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lab value
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lab value
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  1. Reference Age/Gender Related Values
    NEW BORNS, INFANT, CHILD, ADULT M/F
    • ØNewborn – 14-24 g/dl
    • ØInfant -10- 17 g/dl
    • ØChild - 11-16 g/dl
    • ØAdult male- 13.5-17 g/dl -gender difference
    • ØAdult female – 12-15 g/dl
  2. Red blood cells
    • ØIncreased-
    • 1.Hemoconcentration

    • ØDecreased-
    • 1.hemorrhage
    • 2.anemia's 
    • 3.hemodilution- too much fluid in vascular
  3. ØHemoglobin
    • §Increased-
    • dehydration
    • polycythemia
    • COPD
    • CHF
    • Severe Burns
    •  **Recall Hbg carries the oxygen to the cells.
    • §Decreased
    • Anemia's
    • Hemorrhage
    • Cirrhosis of the liver
    • Leukemia's
    • Excessive IV fluids- hemodilution
  4. Hematocrit
    • ØIncreased
    • dehydration- will increase hematocrit level.
    • hypovolemia

    • ØDecreased
    • acute blood loss
    • anemia's
    • leukemia's
    • malignancy 
    • Chronic renal failure
  5. leukocytes
    • ØIncrease
    • (Leukocytosis)
    • acute infections, inflammations, stress,etc

    • ØDecreased(Leukopenia)
    • anemia's, viral infections, alcoholism rheumatoid arthritis, antibiotics
  6. CBC-Platelets
    • Decreased
    • Thrombocyopenia

    • Increased
    • Thromocytosis
  7. Sodium levels
    135-145 Meq/L
  8. Hypernatremia-more
    sodium compared to fluid balance.
    (causes)
    • Ødehydration
    • Øsevere vomiting
    • Øcongestive heart failure
    • Øhigh sodium diet
    • ØDiurectics
  9. Hyponatremia <135 Meq/L
    (causes)
    • ØVomiting
    • ØDiarrhea
    • ØGastric suction
    • ØExcessive perspiration
    • ØContinuous IV of 5% dextrose in water
    • ØSyndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (end result-hyponatremia)
  10. Potassium levels
    3.5-5.3mEq/L
  11. Hyperkalemia (causes)
    • ØOliguria
    • ØAcute renal failure
    • ØIV potassium
    • ØAddison’s disease


    • ØVomiting
    • ØDiarrhea
    • ØCrash diets
    • Østress (trauma, injury, or surgery)
    • ØExcessive licorice ingestion
    • gastric suction
    • diabetic acidosis
    • burns
    • rapid fluid replacement.
  12. Chloride levels and considerations
    • 97-107
    • Meq/L


    • Chloride – Regulates water distribution
    • ØTo check the chloride level in relationship to potassium, sodium, and acid – base balance.
    • ØDecrease chloride is noted with a decrease potassium level and a decreased sodium level.
    • Increased chloride is noted with a increase in sodium level.
  13. Carbon dioxide levels
    22-26Meq/L
  14. Carbon dioxide
    • ØIncreased
    • emphysema

    • ØDecreased
    • ØMetabolic acidosis,
    • ØDiabetic ketoacidosis
    • ØStarvation
    • ØSevere diarrhea
  15. Total Protein/Albumin
    decreased
    • Albumin is the smallest of the protein molecules but it is the largest % in total protein.
    • Decreased levels associated with:
    • ØProlonged malnutrition
    • ØStarvation
    • ØLow protein diet
    • ØMalabsorption syndrome
    • ØCancer of the GI tract
    • ØUlcerative colitis,
    • Øsurgery related to third spacing
  16. Magnesium Mg++
    (increase and decrease)
    • Decreased Mg++ causes:
    • Loss of contractility, causing a
    • diminished pumping action of the heart.
    • Hypokalemia
    • Chronic diarrhea
    • Dehydration
    • Alcohol-will decrease mg ++levels by
    • interfering with Mg++ absorption




    • Increases:
    • Laxatives and antacids containing magnesium

    **Concerns with myocardiac infarction.**
  17. Hypercalcemia
    Hyperparathyroidism

    Malignant neoplasm

    Multiple fractures

    Alcoholism
  18. Hypocalcemia
    • Diarrhea
    • Malabsorption of calcium
    • Extensive infections
    • burns

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