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Reference Age/Gender Related Values
NEW BORNS, INFANT, CHILD, ADULT M/F
- ØNewborn – 14-24 g/dl
- ØInfant -10- 17 g/dl
- ØChild - 11-16 g/dl
- ØAdult male- 13.5-17 g/dl -gender difference
- ØAdult female – 12-15 g/dl
Red blood cells
- 3.hemodilution- too much fluid in vascular
- Severe Burns
- **Recall Hbg carries the oxygen to the cells.
- Cirrhosis of the liver
- Excessive IV fluids- hemodilution
- dehydration- will increase hematocrit level.
- acute blood loss
- Chronic renal failure
- acute infections, inflammations, stress,etc
- anemia's, viral infections, alcoholism rheumatoid arthritis, antibiotics
sodium compared to fluid balance.
- Øsevere vomiting
- Øcongestive heart failure
- Øhigh sodium diet
Hyponatremia <135 Meq/L
- ØGastric suction
- ØExcessive perspiration
- ØContinuous IV of 5% dextrose in water
- ØSyndrome of inappropriate anti-diuretic hormone (end result-hyponatremia)
- ØAcute renal failure
- ØIV potassium
- ØAddison’s disease
- ØCrash diets
- Østress (trauma, injury, or surgery)
- ØExcessive licorice ingestion
- gastric suction
- diabetic acidosis
- rapid fluid replacement.
Chloride levels and considerations
- Chloride – Regulates water distribution
- ØTo check the chloride level in relationship to potassium, sodium, and acid – base balance.
- ØDecrease chloride is noted with a decrease potassium level and a decreased sodium level.
- Increased chloride is noted with a increase in sodium level.
Carbon dioxide levels
- ØMetabolic acidosis,
- ØDiabetic ketoacidosis
- ØSevere diarrhea
- Albumin is the smallest of the protein molecules but it is the largest % in total protein.
- Decreased levels associated with:
- ØProlonged malnutrition
- ØLow protein diet
- ØMalabsorption syndrome
- ØCancer of the GI tract
- ØUlcerative colitis,
- Øsurgery related to third spacing
(increase and decrease)
- Decreased Mg++ causes:
- Loss of contractility, causing a
- diminished pumping action of the heart.
- Chronic diarrhea
- Alcohol-will decrease mg ++levels by
- interfering with Mg++ absorption
- Laxatives and antacids containing magnesium
**Concerns with myocardiac infarction.**
- Malabsorption of calcium
- Extensive infections