AP World History

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AP World History
2014-10-08 08:48:06

Key terms 1-66
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  1. no written history
  2. written proof of history
  3. Social etiquette, religion, education, literature
    features of social civilization
  4. Austrolopithecus, homo habilis, homo erectus, homo sapiens
    Stages of Hominid development
  5. Humans originated from Africa and proliferated vs. originated from Africa but multiple geographical locations first 100 million years
    “Out of Africa” thesis vs. multiregional thesis
  6. Paleolithic Era
    old stone age
  7. neolithic era
    new stone age
  8. a group of people sharing a common ancestry
    family units, clans, tribes
  9. Nomadic, small communities and population, no political system, economic distribution is more equal
    foraging societies
  10. Move place to place according to environment; adapts to environment
    nomadic hunters/gatherers
  11. Period of time where Earth was covered partly in ice
    ice age
  12. Changes when agriculture started
  13. Farming uses; start of agriculture
    Neolithic Revolution
  14. Farming system where animals are taken to different locations in order to find fresh pastures
    Domestication of plants and animals
  15. Slash-and-burn; once land is depleted, moved on to let soil recover
    nomadic pastoralism
  16. Farmers that migrate instead of settling after using up the land
    migratory farmers
  17. Live with husband’s family. Traced through father’s lineage
  18. replacement or supplementation of rainfall with water from another source in order to grow crops
    irrigation systems
  19. craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures. It requires skill and the use of many different types of tools
  20. to look at the world primarily from the perspective of one's own culture
  21. Looking for food
  22. Domestication of plants and animals
    sedentary agriculture
  23. process by which people take an area of land to use for agriculture, only to abandon it a short time later
    shifting cultivation
  24. Trees cut down, plots made for agriculture
    slash-and-burn agriculture
  25. System in which one belongs to mother’s lineage
  26. spread of ideas and material culture, especially if these occur independently of population movement
    cultural diffusion
  27. Creative innovations of new solutions to old and new problems
    independent invention
  28. specialisation of co-operative labour in specific, circumscribed tasks and roles, intended to increase efficiency of output
    27. specialization of labor
  29. Labor divided between man and woman, hunting and gathering etc.
    gender division of labor
  30. the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements and their mixtures, which are called alloys. craft and practice of working with metals to create parts or structures
    metallurgy and metalworking
  31. a region in the Middle East incorporating present-day Israel, West Bank, and Lebanon and parts of Jordan, Syria, Iraq and south-eastern Turkey
    Fertile Crescent
  32. became a legendary protagonist in the Epic of Gilgamesh
  33. First set of defined laws within a civilization.
    Hammurabi’s Law Code
  34. the civilization of the Lower Nile Valley, between the First Cataract and the mouths of the Nile Delta, from circa 3300 BC until the conquest of Alexander the Great in 332 BC. As a civilization based on irrigation, it is the quintessential example of a hydraulic empire.
  35. common name for the ancient Egyptian funerary texts. Constituted a collection of spells, charms, passwords, numbers and magical formulas for use by the deceased in the afterlife, describing many of the basic tenets of Egyptian mythology. They were intended to guide the dead through the various trials that they would encounter before reaching the underworld. Knowledge of the appropriate spells was considered essential to achieving happiness after death.
    Egyptian Book of the Dead
  36. tombs for egyptian kings
  37. system of writing used by the Ancient Egyptians, using a combination of logographic, syllabic, and alphabetic elements
  38. an ancient civilization thriving along the Indus River and the Ghaggar-Hakra river in what is now Pakistan and western India. The Indus Valley Civilization is also sometimes referred to as the Harappan Civilization of the Indus Valley, in reference to its first excavated city of Harappa
    Indus valley civilization
  39. Xia, Shang, Zhou, Warring States Period, Qin, Han
    early China
  40. group of peoples that occupied lands stretching from the British Isles to Gallatia. Went to war with Romans
    the Celts
  41. First to work iron, first to enter Iron Age. controlled central Anatolia, north-western Syria down to Ugarit, and Mesopotamia down to Babylon, lasted from roughly 1680 BC to about 1180 BC. After 1180 BC, the Hittite polity disintegrated into several independent city-states, some of which survived as late as around 700 BC
    the Hittites and iron weapons
  42. indigenous people of Mesopotamia and have a history spanning over 6700 years
    the Assyrians and cavalry warfare
  43. used to refer to a number of historic dynasties that have ruled the country of Persia (Iran). the Achaemenid Empire that emerged under Cyrus the Great that is usually the earliest to be called "Persian." Successive states in Iran before 1935 are collectively called the Persian Empire by Western historians
    The Persian Empire
  44. descendants of biblical Patriarch Eber; were people who lived in the Levant, which was politically Canaan when they first arrived in the area. First monotheistic group; Yahweh
    The Hebrews and monotheism
  45. enterprising maritime trading culture that spread right across the Mediterranean during the first millennium BC. First form of language
    the Phoenicians and the alphabet
  46. ancient kingdom of Asia Minor, first to mint coins
    The Lydians and coinage
  47. region controlled exclusively by Greek, and usually having sovereignty. Ex. Crete
    Greek city-states
  48. form of government in which policy is decided by the preference of the majority in a decision-making process, usually elections or referendums, open to all or most citizens
  49. a series of conflicts between the Greek world and the Persian Empire that started about 500 BC and lasted until 448 BC
    Persian Wars
  50. began in 431 BC between the Athenian Empire (or The Delian League) and the Peloponnesian League which included Sparta and Corinth
    Peloponnesian War
  51. United Ancient Greece; Hellenistic Age, conquered a large empire
    Alexander the Great
  52. shift from a culture dominated by ethnic Greeks to a culture dominated by Greek-speakers of various ethnicities, and from the political dominance of the city-state to that of larger monarchies. In this period the traditional Greek culture was changed by strong Eastern influences, especially Persian, in aspects of religion and government. Cultural centers shifted away from mainland Greece, to Pergamon, Rhodes, Antioch and Alexandria
  53. legendary early Greek poet and rhapsode traditionally credited with authorship of the major Greek epics Iliad and Odyssey
  54. Greek philosopher/student
    Socrates and Plato
  55. Along with Plato, he is often considered to be one of the two most influential philosophers in Western thought. He wrote many books about physics, poetry, zoology, logic, government, and biology
  56. Systematic apporach of observation, hypothesis formation, hypothesis testing and hypothesis evaluation that forms the basis for modern science
    Western scientific thought
  57. republican government of the city of Rome and its territories from 510 BC until the establishment of the Roman Empire, which sometimes placed at 44 BC the year of Caesar's appointment as perpetual dictator or, more commonly, 27 BC the year that the Roman Senate granted Octavian the title "Augustus"
    Roman Republic
  58. peasants/slaves
  59. elite/upperclass
  60. series of three wars fought between Rome and the Phoenician city of Carthage. Reason: clash of interests between the expanding Carthaginian and Roman spheres of influence
    Punic Wars
  61. Roman military and political leader. He was instrumental in the transformation of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire. Dictator for life
    Julius Caesar
  62. Ancient Roman polity in the centuries following its reorganization under the leadership of Octavian
    Roman Empire
  63. First three dynasties of China that we have recordings of. First of 'centralized' China
    Qin, Han, Tang Dynasties
  64. king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BC to 221 BC, and then the first emperor of a unified China from 221 BC to 210 BC, ruling under the name First Emperor
    Shi Huangdi
  65. form of conducting diplomatic and political relations with China before the fall of the Qin Dynasty
    Chinese tributary system
  66. interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel
    The Silk Road
  67. last division of classical Japanese history, running from 794 to 1185. The Heian period is considered the peak of the Japanese imperial court and noted for its art, especially poetry and literature. Nara: agricultural in nature, centered around villages. Most of the villagers followed the Shinto religion, based around the worship of natural and ancestral spirits.
    Nara and Heian Japan
  68. dominated the Japanese politics of Heian period
    the Fujiwara clan