Grain Crops Test 2

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  1. Plumule helps with
  2. black layers shows
    that the seed is fully mature
  3. when the seed coat can't easily be separated from the seed, what is that called?
    caryopsis (think corn)
  4. when the seed coat can be pulled easily, it's a testa. What is a drawback?
    Soil organisms can get through easier
  5. cotyledons - difference between grass and legume family?
    grass has one, legume has two
  6. differences between food supply locations in grass and legume?
    • Food supply in the grass is in the endosperm
    • Food supply in the legume is in the cotyledons
  7. food supply type for grasses?
    mostly starch
  8. food supply type for legumes?
    protein and oil
  9. function of cotyledons for grasses?
    food absorption
  10. function of cotyledons for legumes?
    food supply
  11. is coleoptile present in grass, legume or both?
    grass - it's responsible for first emergence
  12. is coleorhiza present in grass, legume or both?
    • grass
    • it protects the radicle
  13. hypocotyl active in grass, legume or both?
    legume - stem of germinating seed, under cotyledons
  14. epicotyl in the grass is called the
    mesocotyl (it's below ground, between adventitious root and secondary root)
  15. epicotyl in legume does what?
    emergence - it's between first leaves and cotyledons
  16. triple fusion
    pollination leads to sugars in the endosperm
  17. what are some advantages of hypogeal over epigeal emergence?
    • First - hypo (below) geal (earth)
    • grasses do this
    • takes less energy for emergence
    • can plant deeper
    • frost protection
  18. describe epigeal emergence and what types of plants use this?
    • epi (above) geal (soil)
    • cotyledons are above the soil after emergence
    • legumes do this
    • it's energetically difficult for plants to do this
  19. what's a bad time to drive a tractor through the field when your soybeans are in the ground?
    during hypocotyl hook emergence
  20. how do first leaves look on cotyledons v. grasses?
    • leaves on cotyledons are opposite
    • grasses are in a whorl
  21. Wheat yield calculation
    • no. grain/head * no. heads * 0.027 (sm/med) divided by row spacing in cm
    • this is within a meter
  22. things that may affect wheat yield estimates
    • maturity of crop (water enough to finish?)
    • disease
    • condition of grains
  23. once the black layer is down, its dry matter is
    complete. not going to gain more.
  24. what can make seeds sprout on the plant?
  25. what is the point of attachment?
  26. what gets the cotyledon above the soil?
    hypocotyl hook
  27. what part of the seed is first to grow?
  28. how does pollen enter the embryo?
    through the micropyle
  29. three cotyledon functions?
    • gas tank
    • photosynthesis once emerged
    • protection of embryo
  30. what is a function of the cotyledon in a caryopsis?
    enzymatic activity - absorbs carbs to grow
  31. secondary roots are also called
    • seminal roots
    • these are roots growing in the area of the seeds
  32. what tells the coleoptile (this pierces the ground and carries the plumule inside) to stop growing?
  33. meso means what?
    • mid
    • the mesocotyl connects the seed to the first node underground (the seed is below it, the adventitious root is above)
  34. what should you look for when buying seed?
    discolored, misshapen, cracks, weed seed
  35. where does water usually enter the seed?
    micropyle or hilum - can also penetrate seed coat
  36. what water requirements are needed for germination?
    sorghum and corn the least (26-30 percent), soybeans the most (75 percent) 45-50 for small grains
  37. what begins the use of stored energy?
    • enzyme activation (this is temp related)
    • water - giberellic acid - enzyme (amalyse) starts converting starches to sugar
  38. total requirements for germination?
    water - enzyme activation - oxygen - temperature
  39. general rule, how much does temperature speed up germination for each 10 C?
    two to three times
  40. what crop has lowest minimum germination temp?
    • wheat (33F)
    • corn (50F)
  41. what crop has highest minimum temp for germination?
    • rice and sorghum (70 F)
    • Pearl millet (64)
  42. vernalization
    low temp requirement that must be met for flowering to occur
  43. what stimulates wheat tillering and leaf formatin?
    short photoperiod (day length) and warm temps
  44. kernels per bushel estimates for corn?
    • 90,000 medium
    • 80,000 large
    • 100,000 smaller than usual
  45. kernels per kilogram corn yields?
    • 3500 medium
    • 4300 small
    • 3100 large
Card Set
Grain Crops Test 2
grain crops
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