Immuno - Cytokines - 1

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Immuno - Cytokines - 1
2014-10-08 14:26:03
Immuno Cytokines

Immuno - Cytokines
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  1. Roeferon A (Interferon Alpha-2a) SE:
    SE: flu like symptoms of fever, fatigue, chills, dry mouth, GI disorders, changes in mood and temporary effects on the bone marrow, skin rash, hair thinning, loss of appetite and loss of fertility
  2. Roeferon A (Interferon Alpha-2a) MOA:
    MOA: Inhibition of viral replication, modulation of host immune response and anti-proliferative activity
  3. Roeferon A (Interferon Alpha-2a) frequency of dosing:
    3x week (can be QD)
  4. Roeferon A (Interferon Alpha-2a) indications:
    • Antiviral/Anti-tumor
    • Indications: chronic myeloid leukemia, Kaposi sarcoma, lymphoma, hairy cell leukemia, hepatitis B or C, and cancer of the skin and kidney.
  5. Roeferon A (Interferon Alpha-2a) Molecule type:
    Recombinant DNA technology
  6. Intron A (Interferon Alpha-2b) SE:
    SE: flu-like symptoms of fever, fatigue and chills, dry mouth and GI disorders
  7. Intron A (Interferon Alpha-2b)  indication:
    Indication: Hairy cell leukemia, Condylomata Acuminata (venereal or genital warts), Chronic Hepatitis Non A, Non B/C and Chronic Hepatitis B.
  8. Intron A (Interferon Alpha-2b) route of administration:
    By injection only
  9. Intron A (Interferon Alpha-2b) route of administration:
    By injection only
  10. Intron-A (Interferon Alpha-2b) Molecule type:
    Recombinant DNA technology
  11. Generic name for Roeferon A:
    Interferon Alpha-2a
  12. Generic name for Intron-A
    Interferon Alpha-2
  13. Interferon Beta MOA:
    Possible MOA: antagonism of IL-4 and interferon-γ, alters blood barrier by inhibiting cell adhesion, cell migration and metalloproteinase activity, induces IL-10 and TGF-β (anti-inflammatory cytokines)
  14. Interferon Beta indication:
    • Indication: relapsing form of multiple sclerosis (MS), Genital warts
    • (not a cure for = may slow effects and decrease # of relapses)
  15. Interferon drugs:
    • Roeferon A (Interferon Alpha-2a)
    • Intron-A (Interferon Alpha-2b)
    • Interferon Beta
  16. What is the principal mediator of the host response to gram-negative bacteria?
    TNF alpha
  17. ______________ mediates apoptosis.
    TNF alpha
  18. TNF alpha plays a major role in _______________and mediates_____________.
    • inflammation
    • the immune response
  19. TNF alpha is implicated in the pathogenesis of what disease?
    Sepsis, diabetes, cancer, osteoporosis, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and allograft rejection.
  20. What cells secrete TNF alpha?
    • Major: Macrophages
    • Antigen stimulated T cells
    • Activated Mast Cells and NK cells
  21. __________ augments TNF alpha synthesis.
  22. TNF alpha is secreted during activation of the acquired or natural immune response?
  23. What are the actions of TNF alpha?
    • Causes:
    • Vascular endothelial cells to express new cell surface receptors (adhesion molecules)
    • Neutrophils to increase mobilization/adhesiveness for endothelial cells
    • Inflammatory leukocytes (PMNs) to kill microbes
    • Mononuclear phagocytes to produce cytokines, including IL-1, IL-6, TNF itself and chemokines
    • Protective effect against viruses
    • Augments expression of MHC class I
    • Pyrogen = acts on hypothalamic regulatory regions = fever
    • Hepatocytes to synthesize acute phase proteins
    • Suppresses bone marrow stem cell division
    • Reduces tissue perfusion by depressing myocardial contractility
  24. Types of TNF alpha receptors include:
    R1 and R2
  25. Both TNF-alpha receptors activate_____________, _____________ and _____________.
    NF-Kappa B, MAPK and JNK
  26. TNF-___ receptor signals cell death.
  27. What types of TNF-alpha bind to TNF-R1?
    Membrane-bound and processed, soluble TNF alpha
  28. What types of TNF-alpha bind to TNF-R2?
    Only membrane-bound
  29. Activated TNF-R1 contains a ________domain in its cytoplasmic region that recruits the adopter proteins.
  30. Enbrel molecule type:
    Genetically engineered protein
  31. Enbrel Precautions:
    Precaution/CI: Serious infections or sepsis
  32. Enbrel SE:
    SE: injection site reactions, infections and headache
  33. Enbrel indication:
    Indication: Adult and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis and other immune disorders. 
  34. Enbrel MOA:
  35. MOA: binds to tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and competitively inhibits the binding of TNF molecules to the TNF receptor sites, resulting in the reduction of inflammatory activity
  36. The principal function of IL-1 is:
    Mediator of the host inflammatory response in natural immunity
  37. Cell source for IL-1 is:
    • Major: Activated mononuclear phagocytes
    • Epithelial cells, endothelial cells, dendritic cells, astrocytes, fibroblasts, B cell lines and LGL.
  38. IL-1 production can be triggered by:
    • Endotoxins
    • Macrophage derived cytokines such as TNF or IL-1 itself,
    • Contact with CD4+ cells
  39. _____________ produces the acute phase response, which includes a change in amino acid and metallic ionic contents of plasma in response to infection.
  40. IL-1 can be found in circulation following____________________.
    Gram-negative bacterial sepsis
  41. _____________ induces fever which is a reaction to bacterial and viral infections.
  42. ____________suppresses the appetite and induces slow wave sleep.
  43. __________ induces muscle proteolysis, that can lead to severe muscle “wasting” in patients with chronic infection.
  44. IL-1 plays a role in the activation of_____________, ______________ and__________________.
    • T helper cells
    • IL-2 secretion
    • B cells
  45. ________________ increases the lytic activity of natural killer cells where it synergizes with IL-2.
  46. An excess of ___________________production may result in autoimmune disease.