Female reproductive Histology
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What covers the ovaries and where does that extend to?
covered by fimbrae finger like projections extending from the oviduct
What is the entrance to the uterus called?
connective tissue layer surrounding the ovary
where do the majority of the follicles reside in the ovary>
In the cortex
Where do the majority of the vessels enter the ovary?
germinal epithelium (mesothelium)
thin delicate single layer of low cubodial cells surrounding the ovary.
Germinal epithelium contains germ cells that give rise to new oocytes w/i the ovary. T or F
Explain the differences in the follicles.. GO!
- Primaordial follicle: most numerous and have a single layer of flat granulosa cells
- Primary follicles: single layer of cuboidal granulosa cells and the granulosa cells are surrounded by a basal lamina and the oozyte may now be surrounded by the glycoprotein layer called the zona pellucid
- Secondary follicle: multiple layers of cubodial granulosa cells with a well defined zona pellucida, theca cells which resides outside the basal lamina. granulosa cells start to secrete and acquire the follicle will get an antrum
- Antral follicle: follicle that has an antrum and have a well developed thecal layer.. Granulosa cells become 2 types (gc lining the wall of the follicle are mural and the ones surrounding the oocyte are cumulus gc)
- Graafian follicle (pre-ovulatory): prior to ovulation. Follicle is very large and the oocyte sits on a stalk of granulosa and is largely suspended int he antrum. Follicles now have 2 layers of theca cells- theca interna and externa
What does the theca layer do?
So they are steroidogenic cells which produce mainly androgens. Theca layer also contains the blood supply and lymphatics for the follicle.
Where does the vessels enter the lumen of the follicle?
Trick question. The follicle is an avascular space, there are no blood vessels that enter the lumen of the follicle.
What is the main function of the granulosa cells>
Main contributor of follicular fluid (makes the antrum)
What is in the follicular fluid?
streoids, inhibin, and oocyte maturation inhibitor.
nuclei of apoptotic granulosa cells.
So cells starts dying what is it called?
atertic follicle and as a bound it has pyknotic nuclei
When is the follicle ready for ovulation?
once it reached the pre-ovulatory or graafian stage
What is released into the oviduct during ovulation and what stays behind?
oocyte and the cumulus cells are released into the oviduct and the mural and the theca stay behind to make the corpus luteum
What makes the corpus luteum>
Mural and theca cells
What is the main function of the CL?
To secrete progesterone to prepare the endometrim for implantation .
What happens to the CL if the egg doesn't become fertilized?
the CL remains in the ovary for 2 weeks and then regresses to form a white scar tissue called the corpus albicans.
Right after ovulation the Cl is filled with blood and within a couple of days the blood will be resorbed and the CL will take on the yellow color due to the carotin.
The ______ runs parallel to and penetrates through ______ layer of the uterus. Then that artery becomes ______ that branches into the _________ that penetrate __________ of the __________. Those arteries then become ______ deeper in the endometrium in the functional layer.
- unterine artery
- arcuate artery
- the basal layer
What are the 2 layers of the endometrium and what do each do?
- functional layer: faces the lumen of the uterus and contains the uterine glands as well as the surface epithelium and it is what is sloughed off during menstrual bleeding
- basal layer: contains the base of the endometrial glands and remains intact during the menstrual phase and eventually gives rise to the new functional layer
THe uterine artery is a branch off of
the hypograstric artery
What happens to the arteries during the menstrual cycle in the zona fucntionalis?
the uterine arteries constrict and dilate, blood escapes pools in the endometrium and leads to tissue necrosis.
What happens during the proliferative phase to the endometrium, the glands?
- Endometrium proliferates
- Glands become straight and narrow
What haooens to the endometrium and the endometrium and the glands during the luteal phase?
endometrium is thicker than during other stages and the glands are sacculated and tortuous.
How is the cerival mucus during luteal phase? During proliferative phase?
- Luteal: thick and sticky
- Proliferative: thin and watery.
What is the vagina made up of?
- epithelial layer
- lamina propia (elastic layer)
- inner mucosal layer
- no secretory glands but does produce lubricating mucoproteins which aid in intercourse.
tunica muscularis of the oviduct
muscular layer of inner circular and outer long fibers which waves of contractions help protect sperm to egg and the contractions are stimulated but he prostaglandins from the seminal fluid
When can you get an ectopic pregnancy?
if the fertilized egg is retained in the oviduct and implants there
What are the layers of the oviduct?
- Outer- serosa
- tunica muscularis: waves of contractions help propel the sperm to the egg
- mucosa- inner layer
- inside has simple columnar epithelium which has ciliated non secretory and secretory non ciliated.
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