Intro to Geography

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Intro to Geography
2014-10-08 21:33:08

Intro to Geography
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  1. What is geography?
    • - The study of physical, natural, and human elements of the environment
    • - The relationship and the dependencies of these elements
    • - Similarities & differences among things, places, and processes
    • - Where things are and why they're there
    • - How things have changed and will change over time
  2. (The 5 fundamental themes) Location
    • - Positions and distributions of people and places
    • - Absolute Location: the precise location on earth's surface (latitude and longitude)
    • - Relative Location: a place in relation to other places and characteristics (describing the surroundings)
    • - Relatives location is important for understanding govt. related issues (local, provincial, national, global)
  3. (The 5 fundamental themes) Place
    • - The physical and human characteristics of a location that is distinguishable from everywhere else (bodies of water, landforms, natural plants and animals, soils, climate)
    • - Physical characteristics depends on the four spheres
    • - Human characteristics are defined by the ideas and actions of the people who live there (architecture, infrastructure, population density, recreation, cultural characteristics)
  4. (The 5 fundamental themes) Human and environmental interaction
    • - Shows how physical and human characteristics are related to each other
    • - how humans use the natural environment to get basic needs of food, shelter, and clothing
    • - how humans modify the environment to meet their needs to survive
    • - how humans are able adapt to the environment (heating homes, technology development, etc)
  5. (The 5 fundamental themes) Movement
    - The transferring of anything ((ideas, materials, physical systems (ocean currents, etc), transportation (cars, trains, ships, etc), communication methods(telephone, satellite, internet, etc) ))
  6. (The 5 fundamental themes) Regions
    • Number of ways to define:
    • - Politically (countries, provinces, states, cities, etc)
    • - Socio-economically (the European community, the Association of South East Asian Nations, etc)
    • - Climate (Tropical, arctic, etc)
    • - Landforms (the Alps, Malay archipelago, etc)
    • - Language (Latin America, etc)
  7. (The 4 spheres) Lithosphere
    - the soils and rocks of the earth's crust and upper mantle (soil, rock, land, landforms, land masses, continents, islands, volcanoes, earthquakes, etc)
  8. (The 4 spheres) Biosphere
    - that part of the planet where all life is - consists of most of the hydrosphere, the lowest part of the atmosphere, and the outermost parts of the lithosphere (humans, animals, marine life, insects, plants, organisms, etc)
  9. (The 4 spheres) Atmosphere
    - the region of gases extending above earth's surface (air pressure, wind, oxygen, weather, climate, temperature, etc)
  10. (The 4 spheres) Hydrosphere
    - all the water in the world in all forms - liquid, solid, or gas (oceans, ice, snow flakes, vapours, fog, rain, etc)
  11. Ecosystems
    - a biological community formed by the interaction of living things in an environment with one another and their habitat
  12. (Composition of ecosystems) Abiotic
    • - Non-living components
    • - Energy source (the sun)
    • - Climatic conditions
    • - Essential nutrients in soil, air, water
  13. (Composition of ecosystems) Biotic
    • - Living components
    • - Producers: plants and bacteria
    • - Consumers: 2 types - herbivores feed directly on producers and carnivores feed on herbivores, indirectly consumer producers 
    • - Decomposers: types of bacteria and fungi that breaks down tissues from dead plants and animals into nutrients again
  14. (The 4 stages of human development) Hunting and gathering
    • - Population: people together in small scattered groups, only has regional contact w/ other groups
    • - Distinguishing features: survives by hunting birds/animals, fishing, and gathering seeds, fruits, and plant roots
    • - Natural resources: uses natural materials like fur, hide, feathers, and bark for clothing; 
    • lives under rock overhangs, caves, or shelters made of sticks, mud, and leaves; 
    • used fire for cooking and making pottery; 
    • domesticated animals for food and beasts of burden
  15. (The 4 stages of human development) Agrarian
    • - began around 8000 BCE
    • - Population: Concentrated along river valleys, broad plains where soil is rich and fertile
    • - Distinguishing features: cultivation of plants (esp. grains - rice, wheat, barley, millet, corn).
    • Later made native plants crossbreed to develop sturdier seeds
    • domesticated more animals for food and labour (dogs, sheep, goats, camels, horses, etc = surplus of food)
    • clearing forests & building terraces of hill sides to grow crops
    • diverting rivers and digging irrigation ditches, leveling hills for buildings
    • raising mounds to build on
    • mining ores
    • - Division of Labour: development in writing, laws, and govts; cities grow up and conquest territory, spreading civilizations; exploration = intercontinental contact and trades, establishments of nations and empires
    • - Technology: the wheel, the plough, the loom, firearms, navigational devices
    • - Natural Resources: natural resources readily available and accessible; fertile soil for farming, making pottery, building materials; wood for fire, tool making, wagons, shelters; ample water for irrigation, stones for buildings & tools; metals for tools & decorations and ceremonies.  
    • - Energy: renewable resources (water, wind) and strength of humans and animals
  16. (The 4 stages of human development) Industrial
    • - began in 18th century CE
    • - Population: Global population increases, rapid growth of cities and urban population
    • - Distinguishing features: widespread of machinery use, replacing humans and animals
    • controlled used of fire for manufacturing and transportation
    • mass production of goods,
    • global transportation network
    • economic & political contacts
    • conflict/warfare on global scales
    • - Technology: Steam engine, machines for manufacturing, automobiles, aircrafts, electricity, telephone, radio & TV, nuclear weps and energy, steel/concrete/synthetic fibres/plastics, fertilizers, pesticides, medicine 
    • - Natural Resources: Machinery and fules for machines
    • timber, coal, oil, natural gas
    • minerals, metals, and chemicals
    • farm land needs fertilizers
    • drinking water needs to be treated
    • - Energy: Non-renewable fossil fuels
  17. (The 4 stages of human development) Post industrial
    • - began in the last quarter of the 20th century
    • - Population: Increases geometrically. Pretty much all habitable/farmable land is occupied & used.
    • Urban areas are mega-cities. 
    • - Distinguishing features: Instant communication over entire globe
    • universal awareness of dominant cultural features (brand name products celebrities, politicians, etc)
    • widespread of economic and political interdependence
    • declining numbers of employed people in agriculture/industry; higher employment in service and technology sectors
    • increased costs of maintaining farms
    • growing awareness of threats to environment
    • negative impacts of human activities in environment becoming very apparent (desertification, soil degradation, acid rain, hole in ozone layer, global warming,etc)  
    • - Technology: Fields of computers & electronic communications
    • satellite systems
    • remote-sensing systems
    • robotics 
    • - Energy: Non-renewable fossil fuels