Immuno - Cytokines - 2

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Immuno - Cytokines - 2
2014-10-08 21:58:03
Immuno Cytokines
Immuno - Cytokines - 2
Immuno - Cytokines - 2
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  1. _______________ plays an important role in wound healing because it stimulates the proliferation of ______________from connective tissue.
    • IL-1
    • Fibroblasts
  2. ____________increases the synthesis of PGE2.
  3. A naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist is:
  4. PGE2 suppresses further production of _____________.
  5. What does IL-1ra do?
    Blocks IL-1 at its receptor
  6. IL-1ra often achieves high levels in ___________________________.
    patients with various infections or inflammatory conditions
  7. Kineret MOA:
    • It is an IL-1 receptor antagonist
    • It reduces inflammation
    • It decreases bone and cartilage damage
  8. Kineret indication:
    attacks active Rheumatoid Arthritis
  9. Kineret is not administered in combination with __________.
    TNFα antagonists
  10. The side effects of Kineret include:
    • Infection and neutropenia
    • Injection site reactions
    • Other side effects may include headache, nausea, flu like symptoms and abdominal pain
  11. Interleukin-6 is synthesized by______________________
    • ononuclear phagocytes, vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts and other cells
    • It is also made by some activated T cells.
  12. IL-6 is synthesized in response to _________ and , to a lesser extent,______.
    • IL-1
    • TNF
  13. IL-6 causes hepatocytes to_____________________________________________.
    synthesize several plasma proteins that contribute to acute phase response
  14. IL-6 has what effect on neutrophils?
    It causes neutrophil mobilization.
  15. IL-6 affects differentiation of B cells at the ___________maturation step and not at the ____________or proliferation stages.
    • Terminal
    • Activation
  16. Does IL-6 induce fever?
  17. Pathological situations in which IL-6 is elevated include:
    • Infections with retroviruses such as HIV and HTLV-1
    • Some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
    • Patients with certain types of benign or malignant tumors
  18. Interleukin-18 is a member of _______family.
  19. IL-6 has also been implicated in the development of__________________.
    rheumatoid arthritis
  20. IL-18 is produced by cells of__________________________________________, including macrophages, dendritic cells and fibroblasts.
    both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineage
  21. IL-18 promotes the production of various _______________mediators.
  22. _______ augments T- and NK-cell maturation and cytotoxicity.
  23. Does IL-18 promote or inhibit secretion of TNFα?
  24. ___________ plays an important role in in maintaining synovial inflammation and inducing joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.
  25. In synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced levels of TNFα and IL-1 are associated with augmented expression of ________.
  26. _________ induces adhesion molecules on synovial fibroblasts.
  27. _______ plays a critical role in host defense against bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan infection.
  28. IL-2 is produced mainy by _______belonging to the __________subset.
    • T-cells
    • helper/inducer
  29. The __________ molecule is a single polypeptide chain of 133 amino acid residues.
  30. The stimulus for production of IL-2 is:
    The recognition of antigen on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC) as a complex with Class II MHC
  31. IL-2 supports the proliferation and differentiation of any cell which:
    Has high affinity IL-2 receptors.
  32. Resting T-lymphocytes (unstimulated) belonging to either the helper or cytotoxic subsets possess ________of IL-2 receptors.
  33. Following stimulation with a specific antigen, the number of ______________ receptors on a T lymphocyte increases substantially.
  34. The binding of IL-2 with its specific receptors on antigen-stimulated T-cells induces:
    Proliferation and functional differentiation of these cells
  35. IL-2 is essential for the full development of ________T-cells which are important in anti-viral responses.
  36. The binding of IL-2 to receptors on T-helper cells stimulate not only the proliferation of T cells but also:
    the sequential release of other cytokines