Immuno - Cytokines - 2

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kyleannkelsey
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285302
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Immuno - Cytokines - 2
Updated:
2014-10-08 21:58:03
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Immuno Cytokines
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Immuno - Cytokines - 2
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Immuno - Cytokines - 2
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  1. _______________ plays an important role in wound healing because it stimulates the proliferation of ______________from connective tissue.
    • IL-1
    • Fibroblasts
  2. ____________increases the synthesis of PGE2.
    IL-1
  3. A naturally occurring IL-1 receptor antagonist is:
    IL-1ra
  4. PGE2 suppresses further production of _____________.
    IL-1
  5. What does IL-1ra do?
    Blocks IL-1 at its receptor
  6. IL-1ra often achieves high levels in ___________________________.
    patients with various infections or inflammatory conditions
  7. Kineret MOA:
    • It is an IL-1 receptor antagonist
    • It reduces inflammation
    • It decreases bone and cartilage damage
  8. Kineret indication:
    attacks active Rheumatoid Arthritis
  9. Kineret is not administered in combination with __________.
    TNFα antagonists
  10. The side effects of Kineret include:
    • Infection and neutropenia
    • Injection site reactions
    • Other side effects may include headache, nausea, flu like symptoms and abdominal pain
  11. Interleukin-6 is synthesized by______________________
    • ononuclear phagocytes, vascular endothelial cells, fibroblasts and other cells
    • It is also made by some activated T cells.
  12. IL-6 is synthesized in response to _________ and , to a lesser extent,______.
    • IL-1
    • TNF
  13. IL-6 causes hepatocytes to_____________________________________________.
    synthesize several plasma proteins that contribute to acute phase response
  14. IL-6 has what effect on neutrophils?
    It causes neutrophil mobilization.
  15. IL-6 affects differentiation of B cells at the ___________maturation step and not at the ____________or proliferation stages.
    • Terminal
    • Activation
  16. Does IL-6 induce fever?
    Yes
  17. Pathological situations in which IL-6 is elevated include:
    • Infections with retroviruses such as HIV and HTLV-1
    • Some autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis
    • Patients with certain types of benign or malignant tumors
  18. Interleukin-18 is a member of _______family.
    IL-1
  19. IL-6 has also been implicated in the development of__________________.
    rheumatoid arthritis
  20. IL-18 is produced by cells of__________________________________________, including macrophages, dendritic cells and fibroblasts.
    both hematopoietic and non-hematopoietic lineage
  21. IL-18 promotes the production of various _______________mediators.
    pro-inflammatory
  22. _______ augments T- and NK-cell maturation and cytotoxicity.
    IL-18
  23. Does IL-18 promote or inhibit secretion of TNFα?
    Promotes
  24. ___________ plays an important role in in maintaining synovial inflammation and inducing joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis.
    IL-18
  25. In synovium of patients with rheumatoid arthritis, enhanced levels of TNFα and IL-1 are associated with augmented expression of ________.
    IL-18
  26. _________ induces adhesion molecules on synovial fibroblasts.
    IL-18
  27. _______ plays a critical role in host defense against bacterial, viral, fungal and protozoan infection.
    IL-18
  28. IL-2 is produced mainy by _______belonging to the __________subset.
    • T-cells
    • helper/inducer
  29. The __________ molecule is a single polypeptide chain of 133 amino acid residues.
    IL-2
  30. The stimulus for production of IL-2 is:
    The recognition of antigen on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APC) as a complex with Class II MHC
  31. IL-2 supports the proliferation and differentiation of any cell which:
    Has high affinity IL-2 receptors.
  32. Resting T-lymphocytes (unstimulated) belonging to either the helper or cytotoxic subsets possess ________of IL-2 receptors.
    Few
  33. Following stimulation with a specific antigen, the number of ______________ receptors on a T lymphocyte increases substantially.
    IL-2
  34. The binding of IL-2 with its specific receptors on antigen-stimulated T-cells induces:
    Proliferation and functional differentiation of these cells
  35. IL-2 is essential for the full development of ________T-cells which are important in anti-viral responses.
    Cytolytic
  36. The binding of IL-2 to receptors on T-helper cells stimulate not only the proliferation of T cells but also:
    the sequential release of other cytokines

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