Test 2 Ch. 6
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Which system of psychology was a deliberate protest against experimental and structural psychology?
What questions were experimental and structural psychology seen too restrictive to answer?
What the brain does and how it does it.
Why did scholars begin to question the biblical account of creation?
Due to number of new species being discovered and low likelihood two of each pair would have fit in the ark
Why did the skeletons of gorillas and humans strike society so uncomfortably?
become the similar resemblance of the two were so close that it made it seem as though we came from the evolution of gorillas
What was so spectacular about fossils and bones that explorers discovered?
They belonged to animals that existed many years ago but have since died off
Which theory gave much support for the idea of evolution that was beginning to arise?
the theory on the origin of species by Charles Darwin
How did Darwin's work for comparative psychology from animal psychology?
the work performed in animal psychology changed the focus, through darwin's work, to comparing how animals and humans are alike and different
In what ways did Darwin's work influence contemporary psychology?
- having an emphasis placed on functions rather than the structure of consciousness
- an acceptance of methodology and data from many fields
- a focus on the description and measurement of individual differences
What is the idea of hereditary genius?
Those who are born from someone who is considered a genius is thought to become a genius themselves based on their hereditary genes (thought to be a result of both genes and environmental influences)
What is eugenics?
the idea that you obtain great qualities based on the genes you get from your parents
What is eminence?
a word used to describe greatness, genius, intelligence
Who originated the concept of mental tests?
How did Galton believe intelligence could be measured?
- through a person's sensory capacity (the amount of information a person can obtain from their senses)
- high intelligence = high sensory functioning
Who was the first to use statistical methods and the normal curve of distribution with biological and social data?
How was Adolph's normal curve created?
through the measures of height taken from those in his experiment
What were the two numbers Galton proposed could meaningfully describe any large set of measurements for human characteristics?
the mean and standard deviation
What was the anthropometric laboratory collecting data on?
an array of physical measurements
What was the purpose of Galton's massive lab?
to define the range of human capacities of the entire British population to determine its collective mental resources
In what way does Galton's research continue to be useful for?
providing information on developmental trends
What did Galton study?
- the diversity of association of ideas
- reaction time for producing associations
What did Galton's findings of associations show?
- 40% of associations traced to events in childhood and adolescents
- influence of unconscious thought processes brought to conscious awareness incidents considered long forgotten
What was the conclusion over the controversy between evolutionary theory and fundamentalist theory?
there is not sufficient evidence that those who hold strong religious beliefs hold valid beliefs
What did the evidence of Darwin's work on evolution show?
no sharp distinction exists between human and animal minds
What does the research on the Origins of Species show?
animals considered to be automata with no minds of souls
What is the anecdotal method and who used it?
- method of using observational, often casual, reports or narratives about animal behavior
- it was used by George Romanes
What is the Law of parsimony and who created it?
- it is the notion that animal behavior must not be attributed to a higher mental process when it can be explained in terms of a lower mental process
- created by Lloyd Morgan (wanted to make comparative psychology more scientific)
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