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the concensus model argues that the majority of citizens will agree on which activities should be outlawed and punished as crimes; it rests on the assumption that a diverse group of people can have similar morals.
in contrast the conflict model argues that in a diverse society, the dominant groups exercise power by codifying their value systems into criminal laws.
Explain why The classical school is based on Rational choice theory.
Rational Choice theory holds that those who commit crimes choose to do so.
Classical school is based on a model of a person rationally making a choice before committing a crime-weighing the benefits against the costs.
Distinguish between the National Crime Victimization survey (NCVS) and self-reported DATA.
The NCVS involves an annual survey of more than 40,000 households conducted by the Bureau of the Census along with the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The survey queries citizens on crimes that have been committed against them. as such, the NCVS includes crimes not necessarily reported to police.
self-report data in contrast involve asking individuals about criminal activity to which they may have been a party.
Racial/Ethnic differences distribution/patterns of crime.
criminologists have found that the most consistent indicators of criminal behavior are circumstances such as low family earnings power and the absence of a parent. In addition, failure to obtain a high school diploma appears to have a positive correlation with criminal activity, regardless of the race or ethnicity of the individual, finally some believe that high arrest in low-income minority neighborhoods can be attributed to a willingness of police to arrest residents of these communities and of the court system to convict them.
Explain the differences between crimes mala in se and mala prohibita
- a criminal act is mala in se if it is inherently wrong, while a criminal act mala prohibita is illegal only because it isprohibited by the laws of particular society.
- It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between these two sorts of crimes because it is difficult to separate a crime from the culture that has deemed it a crime.
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