Physiology Exam #2

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Physiology Exam #2
2014-10-09 00:47:50

Nerve tissue
Show Answers:

  1. The endocrine and nervous systems deliver chemicals (_______) to receptors on target cells which causes _______ and a response in the cell.
    (ligands), Signal transduction
  2. _________ deliver neurotransmitter directly to synapse and to the receptor.
    "drip system"
    Neurons, "drip system"
  3. _____ tissues deliver hormones into the bloodstream "_______ system" and these move throughout the body and find target cells which express receptors on their membranes inside the ________ or inside the nucleus.
    Endocrine tissues, "rainbird system", cytoplasm
  4. ______ can conduct impulses (__________), transmit signals to the next cell in the sequence (________), and have irritability at their pre-trigger zone membrane (able to respond to a ________).
    Neurons, (conduction), (transmission), (chemical stimulus)
  5. ________: are reciving neurites.
  6. Dendrites contain _______ gated channels which respond to chemicals such as ________, serotonin, dopamine, ________ etc.
    • ligand gated channels,
    • acetylcholine, norepinephrine
  7. Dendrites develop ___________ with stimulation and determine if _______ will be stimulated to threshold and fire.
    graded potentials, trigger zone
  8. Dendrites may have within the membrane molecules which breakdown and recycle neurotrasmitters. Such as __________.
  9. _______ post synaptic potential created when sodium ions enter cell.
    Excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP)
  10. ________ post synaptic potential develops when ________ ions exit cell. (Muscarinic cholinergic system) or ________ ions enter cell (glycine neurotrasmitter sytem)
    Inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP), potassium, chloride ions
  11. _____ may cause cell to fire.
  12. _____ hyperpolarizes cell and inhibits it.
  13. ________: nerve cell  body with nucleus and large amount of nissl substance and mitochondria.
  14. __________: extends form axon hillock, may be ______ or not depending upon the speed of impulse conduction needed.
    Axon, myelinated
  15. Axons contain ____________, _______ gated sodium channels and ______ gated  potassium channels.
    Sodium/pottasium ATPase antiport pumps, voltage gated, voltage gated
  16. Axons branch into terminal branches and ultimately into ______ and  ________.
    teledendria and terminal boutons
  17. Terminal boutons contain _______ with neurotransmitter substance and may be stimulated to ______ and release neurotransmitter upon influx of _________ through calcium voltage gated channels and activated _______, and subsequently activate ________ which phosphorolate _____.
    Presynaptic vessicles, exocytose, Calcium ions, calmodulin, protein kinases, synapsins.
  18. The resting potential of ______ voltage gated channels activation gate is ______.
    Sodium, -70 mv
  19. The sodium voltage gated channels activation gate opens when membrane potential reaches ______.
    threshold (-55mV)
  20. When the Sodium activation gate opens at threshold sodium rushes into cell and ______ to about _____ mV.
    depolarizes to about +25mV
  21. The sodium _______ gate closes at +25mV and no further movement of sodium occurs through these channels.
    inactivation gate
  22. ____ voltage gated channel also opens when cell reaches threshold but opens much slower and ______ exit cell and this results in ________ back to resting potential.
    Potassium, Potassium, repolarization
  23. Movement of _____ ions along the membrane causes adjacent ____ voltage gated channel to open and another _________ occurs in this new location.
    Sodium ions, Sodium, action potential
  24. ______ is many action potentials occuring in a _____ mannber along the length of the axon.
    Nerve impulse, positive feedback