Physiology Exam #2
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The endocrine and nervous systems deliver chemicals (_______) to receptors on target cells which causes _______ and a response in the cell.
(ligands), Signal transduction
_________ deliver neurotransmitter directly to synapse and to the receptor.
Neurons, "drip system"
_____ tissues deliver hormones into the bloodstream "_______ system" and these move throughout the body and find target cells which express receptors on their membranes inside the ________ or inside the nucleus.
Endocrine tissues, "rainbird system", cytoplasm
______ can conduct impulses (__________), transmit signals to the next cell in the sequence (________), and have irritability at their pre-trigger zone membrane (able to respond to a ________).
Neurons, (conduction), (transmission), (chemical stimulus)
________: are reciving neurites.
Dendrites contain _______ gated channels which respond to chemicals such as ________, serotonin, dopamine, ________ etc.
- ligand gated channels,
- acetylcholine, norepinephrine
Dendrites develop ___________ with stimulation and determine if _______ will be stimulated to threshold and fire.
graded potentials, trigger zone
Dendrites may have within the membrane molecules which breakdown and recycle neurotrasmitters. Such as __________.
_______ post synaptic potential created when sodium ions enter cell.
Excitatory post synaptic potential (EPSP)
________ post synaptic potential develops when ________ ions exit cell. (Muscarinic cholinergic system) or ________ ions enter cell (glycine neurotrasmitter sytem)
Inhibitory post synaptic potential (IPSP), potassium, chloride ions
_____ may cause cell to fire.
_____ hyperpolarizes cell and inhibits it.
________: nerve cell body with nucleus and large amount of nissl substance and mitochondria.
__________: extends form axon hillock, may be ______ or not depending upon the speed of impulse conduction needed.
Axons contain ____________, _______ gated sodium channels and ______ gated potassium channels.
Sodium/pottasium ATPase antiport pumps, voltage gated, voltage gated
Axons branch into terminal branches and ultimately into ______ and ________.
teledendria and terminal boutons
Terminal boutons contain _______ with neurotransmitter substance and may be stimulated to ______ and release neurotransmitter upon influx of _________ through calcium voltage gated channels and activated _______, and subsequently activate ________ which phosphorolate _____.
Presynaptic vessicles, exocytose, Calcium ions, calmodulin, protein kinases, synapsins.
The resting potential of ______ voltage gated channels activation gate is ______.
Sodium, -70 mv
The sodium voltage gated channels activation gate opens when membrane potential reaches ______.
When the Sodium activation gate opens at threshold sodium rushes into cell and ______ to about _____ mV.
depolarizes to about +25mV
The sodium _______ gate closes at +25mV and no further movement of sodium occurs through these channels.
____ voltage gated channel also opens when cell reaches threshold but opens much slower and ______ exit cell and this results in ________ back to resting potential.
Potassium, Potassium, repolarization
Movement of _____ ions along the membrane causes adjacent ____ voltage gated channel to open and another _________ occurs in this new location.
Sodium ions, Sodium, action potential
______ is many action potentials occuring in a _____ mannber along the length of the axon.
Nerve impulse, positive feedback
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