307L toxins 1-40

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sinopa
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307L toxins 1-40
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2014-12-08 02:56:53
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toxin powerpoint ALL toxins Dec 2014
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  1. Top Ten Toxins in Dogs
    • Chocolate
    • Insect bait stations
    • Rodenticides
    • Fertilizers
    • Xylitol-containing products
    • Ibuprofen
    • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
    • Silica gel packs
    • Amphetamines (ADD/ADHD)
    • Household cleaners
  2. Top ten toxins in cats
    • Lilies
    • Canine permethrin insecticides (topical flea and tick)
    • Household cleaners
    • Rodenticides
    • Paints and varnishes
    • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory veterinary medications (meloxcam, rimadyl)
    • glow sticks/glow jewlery
    • amphetamines
    • acetaminophen (tylenol)
    • ibuprofen (advil)
  3. Chocolate Toxicity Signs occur in
    6-12 hours and most often in puppies
  4. Chocolate toxicity physical exam
    • restlnessness
    • hyperactibity
    • vomiting/diarrhea
    • cardia arrythmias
    • ataxia
    • muscle tremos
    • hyperthermia
    • seizures
    • coma and death in rare cases
  5. Chocolate Toxicity toxic dose
    • 100-150 mg/kg of theobromine
    • 50 lb dog - 50oz chocolate milk,
    • 15oz semisweet choclate,
    • 5oz baking chocolate)
  6. Chocolate Toxicity Toxin
    theobromine
  7. Chocolate Toxicity mechanism of action
    Excreted by kidneys
  8. Chocolate Toxicity Treatment
    • no antidote
    • no drugs for toxic effects
    • cardiac drugs
    • Araceae
    • Aglaonema spp (chinese evergreen)
    • Caladium spp (angel-wings, caladium)
    • Diffenbachia spp (dumb cane)
    • Philodendron spp (philodendron)
  9. Araceae affects what species
    dogs and cats
  10. Clinical signs of Araceae
    • actue inflammation of oropharynx
    • excess salivation
    • pawing at mouth
    • edema of lips, tongue and throat
    • vomiting/diarrhea
    • dyspnea in severe cases
    • renal failure
  11. Araceae toxin
    Calcium oxalate
  12. Araceae treatment
    • secure
    • no specific treatment for toxin
    • Bracken Fern
    • Horsetail
  13. Bracken Fern affects what species
    • mono gastric and ruminants
    • most common in horses
  14. Bracken Fern physical exam findings
    • "bracken staggers"
    • anorexia
    • weight loss
    • crouching stance
    • trembling muscles
    • rectal temperature usually normal, may reach 104F
    • Death 2-10 days after onset
  15. What is supportive care for toxicities
    • IV fluids
    • anticonvulsants
    • activated charcoal
    • antiarrhythmics
    • Correction of acid base imbalances
    • gastric lavage
    • enemas
    • topical decontamination
  16. Lab findings for Bracken Fern
    low thiamine
  17. Bracken Fern mechanism of action
    excretes in the urinary system
  18. Bracken Fern toxin
    Type 1 Thiaminase enzyme
  19. Bracken Fern treatment
    • saline cathartic
    • high doses of B1 vitamin injections
    • antidote is daily injections of thiamine
    • thiamine hydrocholride injection
    • remove it from diet
    • large amounts of fluids
  20. Bufo Poisoning Clinical Signs
    • salivation
    • vocalizing and pawing at mouth
    • brick-red gums
    • incoodrination/stiff gait
    • difficulty breathing
    • hyperthermia
    • seizures
    • death
  21. Bufo Toxin
    • bufotenine - hallucinogen
    • serotonin - vasoconstrictor
  22. Bufo poisoning treatment
    • rinse dogs mouth with water
    • no antidote
  23. Caffeine clinical signs
    • polydipsia
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • abdominal distention
    • restlessness
    • progression of toxicity signs
    • hyperactibity
    • polyuria
    • ataxia
    • tremors
    • seizures
  24. Caffeine severe signs
    • tachycardia
    • premature ventricular contractions
    • tachypnea
    • cyanosis
    • hypertension
    • hyperthermia
    • bradycardia
    • hypotension
    • coma
  25. Caffeine toxin
    theobromine that inhibits phosphodiestrerases
  26. Caffeine treatment
    no specific treatment
  27. cardiac glycosides
  28. cardiac glycosides physical exam
    • diarrhea (bloody in horses)
    • vomiting
    • anroexia
    • incoodrination/unable to stand
    • abdominal discomfort
    • colic
    • arrhtymia
    • difficulty breathing with oleander
    • often found dead within 8-10 hours
  29. Cardiac Glycosides treatment
    • Digoxin immune Fab (expensive)
    • not readily avaliable
    • Potassium if hypokalemic
  30. Aflatoxin
  31. Aflatoxin toxin
    • Aspergillus flavus
    • Aspergillus parasiticus
  32. Aflatoxin route of exposure
    • inhalation
    • consumption
  33. Aflatoxin mechanism of action
    • kills hepatocytes in liver
    • affects clotting mechanisms
    • destroys T cells
    • decreases macrophage phagocytosis
  34. Aflatoxin treatment
    no specific treatment
  35. Coumadin Toxicity
  36. Coumadin Toxicity common names
    • coumadin
    • warfarin
  37. Coumadin Toxicity species affected
    • rodents
    • cats
    • dogs
  38. Coumadin Toxicity physical findings
    • pale mucus membranes
    • hematomas
    • petechiae
    • lab: inhibit action of vitamin K in coagulation factors II, VII, IX
  39. Coumadin Toxicity toxin
    coumarin
  40. Coumadin Toxicity treatment
    • synthetic vitamin K-1 (takes 6 hours)
    • menadione
    • phytoadone (oral, IV, IM) (be aware of anaphylaxis)
    • Crotilidae
    • pit vipers, rattlesnake, copperhead, cotton mouth, water moccasins
  41. Crotilidae physical exam
    • puncture wounds
    • pain
    • swelling
    • chhymosis
    • sloughing tissue
    • weakness
    • nausea
    • shock
  42. Crotilidae CBC
    • hemoconcentration
    • leukocytosis
    • echinocytosis
    • thrombocytopenia
  43. Crotilidae toxin
    • Proteolytic trypsin-like enzyme - marked tissue destruction
    • Arginine ester hydrolase enzyme  adversely affects clotting activity
    • Hyaluronidase - allows venom to penetrate and spread through tissues
  44. Crotilidae treatment
    • specific for toxin
    • antivenin
    • Metaldehyde
    • found in snail bait
  45. Metaldehyde physical exam intermediate
    • salivation
    • mydrasis
    • tremors
    • ataxia
    • incoodrination
    • acetylene breath
  46. Metaldehyde physical exam advanced
    • vomiting
    • polypnea
    • cyanosis
    • tachycardia
    • hyperextension of the body
    • convulsions
    • nystagmus
    • hyperthermia
  47. Metaldehyde physical exam delayed
    • depression
    • coma
    • respiratory failure
    • death
    • liver failure
  48. Metaldehyde  toxin
    Metaldehyde
  49. Metaldehyde route of toxicity
    ingestion
  50. Metaldehyde mechanism of action
    • Metaldehyde converted to Acetaldehyde
    • crosses blood brain barrier
    • reduces GABA levels
    • affects eletrolyte/acid-base balances
  51. Metaldehyde treatment
    • detoxification therapy
    • no specific antidote
    • Organophosphates 
    • Scout
    • Pirdane
    • Brodan
    • Demeton-S-Methyl
    • Diazinon
    • Primphos-Methyl
  52. Organophosphates route of exposure
    • found in gardens and household products
    • ingestion
  53. Organophosphates species affected
    • dogs
    • cats
  54. Organophosphates physical exam
    • salivation
    • diarrhea
    • ataxia
    • constricted pupils
    • muscle fasciculation
    • hyperaethesia
    • tremors/twitching
    • bradycardia
    • respiratory depression
    • convulsions
  55. Organophosphates lab findings
    • azotmia
    • hematuria
    • leukocytosis
    • elevated CK
    • hypokalemia
    • hyperglycemia
  56. Organophosphates toxicity
    • varies
    • Chlorfenvinphos
    • Dichlorvos
  57. Route of toxicity
    • ingestion
    • topical
    • inhalation
  58. Organophosphates mechanism of action
    • bind and inhibit acetylcholinesterase
    • AChE responsible for binding Ach at cholinegic sites
    • inhibition of ACHE leads to overstimulation of postynaptic neuron of muscle
  59. Organophosphates emergency treatment
    • atropine - inhibits SLUD syndrome/treats bradycardia & excessive bronchial secretions
    • Pralidoxime [2-PAM] used for nicotinic signs/reactivates AChE
    • Tobacco
    • Lupine
    • Bluebonnet
  60. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet physical exam
    • labored breathing
    • depression (sheep)
    • increased salivation/teeth grinding (Cattle)
    • ataxia
    • muscular weakness
    • recumbency
    • neurologic signs
    • coma
    • respiratory paralysis
    • low BP
    • death
    • teratogenesis (crooked-calf disease)
  61. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet  lab findings
    • elevated serum
    • elevated CK
    • elevated AST
  62. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet diagnostic testing
    blood chem on liver, kidney, stomach contents
  63. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet  toxicity
    teratogenesis in cattle if exposed in uterus during 4-70 days of gestation
  64. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet toxin
    • Quinolizidine
    • piperidine alkaloids (nicotinic effect)
  65. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet route of toxicity
    ingestion
  66. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet  treatment
    no specific treatment
    • Yellow star thistle
    • chewing disease
  67. Yellow star thistle species affected
    equine
  68. Yellow star thistle toxin
    Sesquiterpene lacton repin
  69. Yellow star thistle route of toxicity
    PO
  70. Yellow star thistle physical exam findings
    • inability to swallow
    • drowsiness
    • making chewing motions with nothing in mouth
    • frequent yawning
    • unsual behavior
    • unusual standing positions
    • acting as if something in throat
    • chewing food and spitting it out
  71. Yellow star thistle lab findings
    CS + postmortem - lesions on part of brain
  72. Yellow star thistle mechanism of action
    • nigropallidal malacia
    • substansia nigra/globus pallidus
    • CNS - muscles of prehension and mastication
  73. Yellow star thistle treatment
    • no route of elimination of toxin
    • no effective treatment
    • CNS damage irreversible
    • Botulism
    • Clostridium botulinum
  74. Botulism route of exposure
    ingestion
  75. Botulism species affected
    • ruminants
    • horses
    • pigs
    • foxes
    • minks
    • birds
  76. Botulism physical exam
    • muscular weakness
    • intermittent ptosis
    • mouth breathing
    • serous nasal discharge
    • salivation
    • dysphagia
    • rales
    • anorexia
    • lateral recumbency
    • paralysis of respiratory system
    • cardiac arrest
  77. Botulism treatment
    • no specific treatment
    • prevent: vaccine
    • Garbage poisoning
    • garbage gut
    • bacterial food poisoning
    • gastroenteritis
  78. garbage toxicity species affected
    every species
  79. garbage toxicity toxin
    • streptococcus spp.
    • salmonella spp
    • e. coli
    • clostridium perfingens
  80. garbage toxicity  route of exposure
    oral
  81. garbage toxicity mechanism of action
    • bacteria attaches to intestinal epithelium
    • causes increased permeability, hypersecretion, cell damage
    • toxins absorbed into bloodstream
  82. garbage toxicity route of elminiation
    • vomiting
    • defecation
  83. garbage toxicity physical exam acute
    • lethargy
    • vomiting
    • abdominal pain
    • diarrhea (bloody)
    • weakness
    • dehydration
    • fever
  84. garbage toxicity physical exam chronic
    • signs of endotoxic shock
    • depression
    • collapse
    • hypothermia
    • hyperthermia
    • decrease in urine production
  85. garbage toxicity lab findings
    • dehydration
    • electrolyte imbalance
    • imaging: intestinal gas
  86. garbage toxicity treatment
    nothing specific
    • Strelitzia reginae
    • Bird of paradise
    • house plant that affects cats
    • Calla palustris
    • Calla Lily
    • house plant that affects cats
    • Philodendron cordatum
    • Heart leaf
    • house plant that affects cats
    • Sanservieraia trifasciata
    • Mother in Law
    • house plant that affects cats
  87. Clinical signs of houseplants toxic to cats
    • Oral irritation - pain and swelling
    • acute inflammation of oropharynx
    • vomiting
    • difficulty swallowing
    • excessive drooling
    • edema of lips, tongue and throat
    • death
    • can cause permanent liver and kidney damage
  88. Toxin found in houseplants toxic to cats
    • Calcium oxalate crystals
    • CaC2O4
    • they release histamine in bloodstream.
  89. Treatment for house plant toxicity in cats
    • emesis
    • supportive care
    • rinse mouth with water or milk
    • antihistamines
  90. Hymenoptera (bees, ants, etc) species affected
    any animal
  91. Hymenoptera clinical signs
    • appear within 30 minutes
    • local pain
    • inflammation
    • respiratory distress
    • shock
    • anaphyalxis
    • DIC
    • death
    • regional edema
    • hemolysis of RBC
    • rhabdomyolysis, liver or kidney failure
  92. Hymenoptera toxins
    • Honey Bee, paper wasp - hemolysins
    • Fire ant - necrotizing, hemolytic alkaloids
    • Field ant - formic acid
    • yellow jacket - phospholipase, histamine
  93. Hymenoptera mechanism of action
    • produces IgE mediated antigenantibody reaction and acute anaphylactic response
    • venom causes histamine release
  94. General treatment of hymenoptera
    • corticosteroids
    • antihistamine
    • epineprhine
    • broad spectrum antibiotics
  95. Larkspur
  96. Larkspur species affected
    humans, cattle,s heep
  97. Larkspur toxin
    • Diterpenoid alkaloids, 3 classes
    • MSAL
    • Lycotonine
    • MDL
  98. Larkspur mechanism of action
    alpha 1 nicotinic sites
  99. Larkspur PE findings
    • uneasiness
    • stiff gait
    • straddled stance
    • collapse
    • muscle tremors
    • sternal then lateral recumbency
    • abdominal discomfort
    • vomiting
    • death
    • respiratory paralysis
  100. Larkspur emergency treatment
    • Physostigmine
    • No specific antidote
    • empty the rumen
    • turn animal around if facing downhill
  101. Lead poisoning
    • Plumbism
    • affects all species
  102. Lead poisoning PE findigns
    • GI changes
    • neuro changes
    • hematologic changes
    • Dogs: behavior chanes, frothing at mouth, anorexia, weight loss, V/D, blood in feces, seizures, abdominal pain, incoordination, death
    • Cat: anorexia, seizures, V/D, depression
    • Horses: pharyngeal paralysis
  103. Lead poisoning Lab findings
    • microcytic hypochromic anemia
    • elevated liver enzymes
  104. Lead poisoning treatment
    • dimercaprol
    • no reversal agent
    • chelation therapy
  105. Aminata phalloides
  106. Mushroom poisoning PE
    • death in 3-7 days
    • GI pahse last 24 hours
    • hepatorenal stage occurs 3-4 days after ingestion. elevated serum, hepatic enzyme activities, metabolic acidosis
    • Latent phase: elevations of serum ALT & APT
  107. Mushroom poisoning toxiin
    • cyclopeptides:
    • amatoxins: interfere with DNA & RNA transcription
    • phallotoxins,
    • virotoxins
  108. Mushroom Poisoning treatment
    • upper GI decontamination within 4 hours
    • silibinin dihydrogen discuccinate disodium
    • acetlycyteine
    • Nitrate Poisoning
    • Jimsonweed: Datura stramonium
    • Pigweed: amaranthus palmeri
    • Lambsquarter: CHenopodium album
  109. Nitrate poisoning species affected
    ruminants, horses, poultry
  110. Nitrate poisoning PE findings
    • bluish/chocolate brown mucous membranes
    • dyspnea
    • rapid pulse (150 bpm)
    • salivation, bloat, tremors, staggering
    • weakness, coma, death
    • dark "chocolate-colored" blood
    • methmoglobenima
  111. Nitrate poisoning mechanism of action
    • Nitrate -> nitrite
    • nitrite -> ammonium
    • reacts with hemoglobin, lack of oxygen, death
    • duration of activity 1/2 to 4 hours
  112. nitrate poisoning treatment
    • reoxygenate blood
    • 4% methylene blue (IV)
  113. NSAID toxicity
    ibuprofin, naproxen, phenylbutazone
  114. NSAID toxicity PE findings
    VD, nausea, ataxia, weakness, lethargy, cyanosis, seizures, pale MM color, abdomina pain, facial or paw edema, icterus, depression, hypothermia, hyperventilation, hepatic and renal necrosis
  115. NSAID toxicity lab findings
    • regenerative anemia
    • neutrophilia with a left shift
    • increased BUN and creatnine
    • decreased total protein
  116. Ethylene glycol toxicity (antifreeze) lab signs
    • metabolic acidosis
    • lactic acidosis
    • hypocalcemia
    • hypocalcemia
    • hematuria
    • protinuria
    • increased creatnine
    • renal tubular epithelial damage
    • renal failure
  117. Ethylene glycol stage 1 signs
    • neurologic signs: CNS depression, stupor, ataxia, knuckling, decreased withdrawl & righting reflexes
    • dehydration
    • vomiting
    • polydipsia
    • polyuria
    • seizures
    • death
  118. ethelyene glycol stage 2 signs
    • 12-24 hours aftre ingestion
    • cardiopulmonary signs
    • tacypnea
    • tachycardia
  119. ethylene glycol toxicity stage 3 signs
    • 24-72 hours after ingestion
    • anorexia, lethargy
    • dehydration
    • vomioting/diarrhea
    • oral ulcers, salivation
    • tachypnea
    • azotemia or uremia
    • isothenuria
    • seizures, coma
  120. Ethylene glycol diagnosis
    purple color for presence of ethylene glycol in plasma of dog
  121. ethylene glycol toxicity treatment goals
    • decrease absorption of ingested EG
    • increase excretion of unmetabolized EG
    • prevent metabolism of EG
    • ethanol
  122. ethylene glycol specific treatment
    • ethanol (risky)
    • 4-methylprazole
    • CYANIDE accumulating plants
    • wild/sweet cherry - prunus avium
    • japanese plum - prunus salicina
    • sorgum - sorgum bgicolor
    • sudan gras - sorgum sudanese
    • oral, dermal and inhalant
  123. Cyanide accumulating plants PE
    • excitement & rapid respiration rate
    • dyspnea /w tachycardia
    • salivation, lacrimation, vomiting (pigs)
    • incontinence
    • convulsions  & spasms
    • mucous membranes bright red - cyanotic
    • rumen becomes distended /w gas
    • hemorhages of heart
    • bitter almond odor
  124. cyanide accumulating plants treatment
    • sodium nitite /w sodium thiosulfate
    • repeat ever 2-4 hours as needed
    • dogs: DMAP
    • Cyanokit - hydroxycobolamin
  125. Black Widow Poisoning clinical signs
    • numbness around bite site
    • restlessness
    • muscle pain/rigidity
    • seizures
    • increased HR
    • labored breathing
    • weakness of limbs
    • paralysis
    • cats: pain, drooling, paralysis, death
  126. black widow toxin
    • neurotoxin
    • latrotoxin effects - diaphragm
  127. black widow treatment
    antivenin - expensive
  128. brown recluse spider toxin
    histerotoxin, a redefined digestive fluid
  129. brown recluse spider signs
    • 3-8 hours: red, swollen, tender
    • necrotic lesion
    • bluish, dry patch with jagged edges
    • pale, central blister with marginal redness
    • thrombocytopenia, disseminated IV coagulation, hemolysis, renal failure, fever, chills, dizziness, vomiting
  130. grape and raisin toxicity clinical signs
    • V/D within 2 hours
    • 5-6 hours lethargy, polydipsia
    • 24-72 hours acute renal failure
    • anorexia, lethargy, depression, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, tremors, hypovolemia
  131. castor bean toxicity\Ricinus commuhnis
  132. castor bean toxin
    • ricin,
    • ricinus communis agglutinin

    rosary pea (abrus precatorius) lucky bean, jequirity pea (abrin)
  133. castor bean signs inhalation
    • respiratory distress
    • fever cough
    • dyspnea, nausea
    • sweating, pulmonary edema
    • cyanosis, hypotension
    • respiratory failure, circulatory collapse
    • death in 36-72 hours
  134. castor bean signs ingestion
    • abdominal pain
    • V/D (+.- blood)
    • dehydration
    • hypotension
    • halucinations, seizurs, hematuria
    • liver, spleen, kidneys necrotize
    • death in 3-7 days
  135. Acetaminophen Toxicity signs
    • 3-12 hours - mucous membranes brown or muddy color
    • heinz bodies
  136. acetaminophen toxicity
    • N-acetylcysteine
    • ascorbic acid
    • cimetidine
  137. Senecio poisoning
    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid affects hroses, cattle,s wine, chickens
  138. Senecio
  139. Senecio PE
    • appear suddenly
    • weight loss, icterus
    • behavioral abnormalities due to hepatoencephalopathy
    • ascities
    • tenesmus
    • head-pressing, aimless wandering, ataxia, aggressive behavior
  140. Melamine toxicityclinical signs
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • dehydration
    • loss of appetite
    • PU/PD
    • straining to urinate
    • bladder stones, melamine cyrtalluria
    • proteinuria
    • epithelial hyperplasia of urinary bladder
    • hematuria
  141. carbon monoxide & carbon dioxide toxicity
    • asphyxiants that combine with hemoglobin of blood
    • decreases amount of oxygen
  142. carbon monoxide signs
    • lethargy, weakness
    • drowsinees, uncoordination, disoreintation
    • vomiting, stomach pains, loss of appetite
    • chest pains, palpitations, hyperventilation
    • seizures, death
  143. carbon dioxide signs
    • shortness of breath
    • heavy breathing, quick pulse
    • dizziness, restlessness, breathlessness, nausea, vomiting, visual disortion
    • increased HR, BP, loss of consciousness
    • coma, convulsions, death
  144. carbon monoxide & dioxide toxicity treatment
    oxygen
  145. xylitol scientific name
    • pentahydroxypentane
    • birch sugar
  146. xylitol toxicity signs
    • vomiting
    • hypoglycemia
    • lethargy
    • ataxia
    • collapse
    • seizures
    • liver failure
  147. blister beetle poisoning
    horses, cattle affected
  148. blister beetle poisoning
    • sudden death
    • colic, soft stool
    • oral ulcers
    • UT damage
    • arrhythmias
  149. blister beetle toxin
    cantharidin
    • Sweetclover
    • Melilotus officinalis/alba
  150. sweetclover toxin
    • old hay or silage
    • plant molds cause coumarin to be released as dicumarol
  151. sweetclover clinical signs
    • lameness, stiffness, weakness
    • hematomas epitaxis, bruising
    • gi bleeding in feces, urine or milk
    • pale mucous membranes
    • increased respiratory rates
    • rapid/weak pulse
  152. sweetclover treatment
    vitamin K

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