307L toxins 1-40

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  1. Top Ten Toxins in Dogs
    • Chocolate
    • Insect bait stations
    • Rodenticides
    • Fertilizers
    • Xylitol-containing products
    • Ibuprofen
    • Acetaminophen (Tylenol)
    • Silica gel packs
    • Amphetamines (ADD/ADHD)
    • Household cleaners
  2. Top ten toxins in cats
    • Lilies
    • Canine permethrin insecticides (topical flea and tick)
    • Household cleaners
    • Rodenticides
    • Paints and varnishes
    • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory veterinary medications (meloxcam, rimadyl)
    • glow sticks/glow jewlery
    • amphetamines
    • acetaminophen (tylenol)
    • ibuprofen (advil)
  3. Chocolate Toxicity Signs occur in
    6-12 hours and most often in puppies
  4. Chocolate toxicity physical exam
    • restlnessness
    • hyperactibity
    • vomiting/diarrhea
    • cardia arrythmias
    • ataxia
    • muscle tremos
    • hyperthermia
    • seizures
    • coma and death in rare cases
  5. Chocolate Toxicity toxic dose
    • 100-150 mg/kg of theobromine
    • 50 lb dog - 50oz chocolate milk,
    • 15oz semisweet choclate,
    • 5oz baking chocolate)
  6. Chocolate Toxicity Toxin
    theobromine
  7. Chocolate Toxicity mechanism of action
    Excreted by kidneys
  8. Chocolate Toxicity Treatment
    • no antidote
    • no drugs for toxic effects
    • cardiac drugs
  9. Image Upload
    • Araceae
    • Aglaonema spp (chinese evergreen)
    • Caladium spp (angel-wings, caladium)
    • Diffenbachia spp (dumb cane)
    • Philodendron spp (philodendron)
  10. Araceae affects what species
    dogs and cats
  11. Clinical signs of Araceae
    • actue inflammation of oropharynx
    • excess salivation
    • pawing at mouth
    • edema of lips, tongue and throat
    • vomiting/diarrhea
    • dyspnea in severe cases
    • renal failure
  12. Araceae toxin
    Calcium oxalate
  13. Araceae treatment
    • secure
    • no specific treatment for toxin
  14. Image Upload
    • Bracken Fern
    • Horsetail
  15. Bracken Fern affects what species
    • mono gastric and ruminants
    • most common in horses
  16. Bracken Fern physical exam findings
    • "bracken staggers"
    • anorexia
    • weight loss
    • crouching stance
    • trembling muscles
    • rectal temperature usually normal, may reach 104F
    • Death 2-10 days after onset
  17. What is supportive care for toxicities
    • IV fluids
    • anticonvulsants
    • activated charcoal
    • antiarrhythmics
    • Correction of acid base imbalances
    • gastric lavage
    • enemas
    • topical decontamination
  18. Lab findings for Bracken Fern
    low thiamine
  19. Bracken Fern mechanism of action
    excretes in the urinary system
  20. Bracken Fern toxin
    Type 1 Thiaminase enzyme
  21. Bracken Fern treatment
    • saline cathartic
    • high doses of B1 vitamin injections
    • antidote is daily injections of thiamine
    • thiamine hydrocholride injection
    • remove it from diet
    • large amounts of fluids
  22. Bufo Poisoning Clinical Signs
    • salivation
    • vocalizing and pawing at mouth
    • brick-red gums
    • incoodrination/stiff gait
    • difficulty breathing
    • hyperthermia
    • seizures
    • death
  23. Bufo Toxin
    • bufotenine - hallucinogen
    • serotonin - vasoconstrictor
  24. Bufo poisoning treatment
    • rinse dogs mouth with water
    • no antidote
  25. Caffeine clinical signs
    • polydipsia
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • abdominal distention
    • restlessness
    • progression of toxicity signs
    • hyperactibity
    • polyuria
    • ataxia
    • tremors
    • seizures
  26. Caffeine severe signs
    • tachycardia
    • premature ventricular contractions
    • tachypnea
    • cyanosis
    • hypertension
    • hyperthermia
    • bradycardia
    • hypotension
    • coma
  27. Caffeine toxin
    theobromine that inhibits phosphodiestrerases
  28. Caffeine treatment
    no specific treatment
  29. Image Upload
    cardiac glycosides
  30. cardiac glycosides physical exam
    • diarrhea (bloody in horses)
    • vomiting
    • anroexia
    • incoodrination/unable to stand
    • abdominal discomfort
    • colic
    • arrhtymia
    • difficulty breathing with oleander
    • often found dead within 8-10 hours
  31. Cardiac Glycosides treatment
    • Digoxin immune Fab (expensive)
    • not readily avaliable
    • Potassium if hypokalemic
  32. Image Upload
    Aflatoxin
  33. Aflatoxin toxin
    • Aspergillus flavus
    • Aspergillus parasiticus
  34. Aflatoxin route of exposure
    • inhalation
    • consumption
  35. Aflatoxin mechanism of action
    • kills hepatocytes in liver
    • affects clotting mechanisms
    • destroys T cells
    • decreases macrophage phagocytosis
  36. Aflatoxin treatment
    no specific treatment
  37. Image Upload
    Coumadin Toxicity
  38. Coumadin Toxicity common names
    • coumadin
    • warfarin
  39. Coumadin Toxicity species affected
    • rodents
    • cats
    • dogs
  40. Coumadin Toxicity physical findings
    • pale mucus membranes
    • hematomas
    • petechiae
    • lab: inhibit action of vitamin K in coagulation factors II, VII, IX
  41. Coumadin Toxicity toxin
    coumarin
  42. Coumadin Toxicity treatment
    • synthetic vitamin K-1 (takes 6 hours)
    • menadione
    • phytoadone (oral, IV, IM) (be aware of anaphylaxis)
  43. Image Upload
    • Crotilidae
    • pit vipers, rattlesnake, copperhead, cotton mouth, water moccasins
  44. Crotilidae physical exam
    • puncture wounds
    • pain
    • swelling
    • chhymosis
    • sloughing tissue
    • weakness
    • nausea
    • shock
  45. Crotilidae CBC
    • hemoconcentration
    • leukocytosis
    • echinocytosis
    • thrombocytopenia
  46. Crotilidae toxin
    • Proteolytic trypsin-like enzyme - marked tissue destruction
    • Arginine ester hydrolase enzyme  adversely affects clotting activity
    • Hyaluronidase - allows venom to penetrate and spread through tissues
  47. Crotilidae treatment
    • specific for toxin
    • antivenin
  48. Image Upload
    • Metaldehyde
    • found in snail bait
  49. Metaldehyde physical exam intermediate
    • salivation
    • mydrasis
    • tremors
    • ataxia
    • incoodrination
    • acetylene breath
  50. Metaldehyde physical exam advanced
    • vomiting
    • polypnea
    • cyanosis
    • tachycardia
    • hyperextension of the body
    • convulsions
    • nystagmus
    • hyperthermia
  51. Metaldehyde physical exam delayed
    • depression
    • coma
    • respiratory failure
    • death
    • liver failure
  52. Metaldehyde  toxin
    Metaldehyde
  53. Metaldehyde route of toxicity
    ingestion
  54. Metaldehyde mechanism of action
    • Metaldehyde converted to Acetaldehyde
    • crosses blood brain barrier
    • reduces GABA levels
    • affects eletrolyte/acid-base balances
  55. Metaldehyde treatment
    • detoxification therapy
    • no specific antidote
  56. Image Upload
    • Organophosphates 
    • Scout
    • Pirdane
    • Brodan
    • Demeton-S-Methyl
    • Diazinon
    • Primphos-Methyl
  57. Organophosphates route of exposure
    • found in gardens and household products
    • ingestion
  58. Organophosphates species affected
    • dogs
    • cats
  59. Organophosphates physical exam
    • salivation
    • diarrhea
    • ataxia
    • constricted pupils
    • muscle fasciculation
    • hyperaethesia
    • tremors/twitching
    • bradycardia
    • respiratory depression
    • convulsions
  60. Organophosphates lab findings
    • azotmia
    • hematuria
    • leukocytosis
    • elevated CK
    • hypokalemia
    • hyperglycemia
  61. Organophosphates toxicity
    • varies
    • Chlorfenvinphos
    • Dichlorvos
  62. Route of toxicity
    • ingestion
    • topical
    • inhalation
  63. Organophosphates mechanism of action
    • bind and inhibit acetylcholinesterase
    • AChE responsible for binding Ach at cholinegic sites
    • inhibition of ACHE leads to overstimulation of postynaptic neuron of muscle
  64. Organophosphates emergency treatment
    • atropine - inhibits SLUD syndrome/treats bradycardia & excessive bronchial secretions
    • Pralidoxime [2-PAM] used for nicotinic signs/reactivates AChE
  65. Image Upload
    • Tobacco
    • Lupine
    • Bluebonnet
  66. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet physical exam
    • labored breathing
    • depression (sheep)
    • increased salivation/teeth grinding (Cattle)
    • ataxia
    • muscular weakness
    • recumbency
    • neurologic signs
    • coma
    • respiratory paralysis
    • low BP
    • death
    • teratogenesis (crooked-calf disease)
  67. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet  lab findings
    • elevated serum
    • elevated CK
    • elevated AST
  68. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet diagnostic testing
    blood chem on liver, kidney, stomach contents
  69. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet  toxicity
    teratogenesis in cattle if exposed in uterus during 4-70 days of gestation
  70. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet toxin
    • Quinolizidine
    • piperidine alkaloids (nicotinic effect)
  71. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet route of toxicity
    ingestion
  72. Tobacco/Lupine/Bluebonnet  treatment
    no specific treatment
  73. Image Upload
    • Yellow star thistle
    • chewing disease
  74. Yellow star thistle species affected
    equine
  75. Yellow star thistle toxin
    Sesquiterpene lacton repin
  76. Yellow star thistle route of toxicity
    PO
  77. Yellow star thistle physical exam findings
    • inability to swallow
    • drowsiness
    • making chewing motions with nothing in mouth
    • frequent yawning
    • unsual behavior
    • unusual standing positions
    • acting as if something in throat
    • chewing food and spitting it out
  78. Yellow star thistle lab findings
    CS + postmortem - lesions on part of brain
  79. Yellow star thistle mechanism of action
    • nigropallidal malacia
    • substansia nigra/globus pallidus
    • CNS - muscles of prehension and mastication
  80. Yellow star thistle treatment
    • no route of elimination of toxin
    • no effective treatment
    • CNS damage irreversible
  81. Image Upload
    • Botulism
    • Clostridium botulinum
  82. Botulism route of exposure
    ingestion
  83. Botulism species affected
    • ruminants
    • horses
    • pigs
    • foxes
    • minks
    • birds
  84. Botulism physical exam
    • muscular weakness
    • intermittent ptosis
    • mouth breathing
    • serous nasal discharge
    • salivation
    • dysphagia
    • rales
    • anorexia
    • lateral recumbency
    • paralysis of respiratory system
    • cardiac arrest
  85. Botulism treatment
    • no specific treatment
    • prevent: vaccine
  86. Image Upload
    • Garbage poisoning
    • garbage gut
    • bacterial food poisoning
    • gastroenteritis
  87. garbage toxicity species affected
    every species
  88. garbage toxicity toxin
    • streptococcus spp.
    • salmonella spp
    • e. coli
    • clostridium perfingens
  89. garbage toxicity  route of exposure
    oral
  90. garbage toxicity mechanism of action
    • bacteria attaches to intestinal epithelium
    • causes increased permeability, hypersecretion, cell damage
    • toxins absorbed into bloodstream
  91. garbage toxicity route of elminiation
    • vomiting
    • defecation
  92. garbage toxicity physical exam acute
    • lethargy
    • vomiting
    • abdominal pain
    • diarrhea (bloody)
    • weakness
    • dehydration
    • fever
  93. garbage toxicity physical exam chronic
    • signs of endotoxic shock
    • depression
    • collapse
    • hypothermia
    • hyperthermia
    • decrease in urine production
  94. garbage toxicity lab findings
    • dehydration
    • electrolyte imbalance
    • imaging: intestinal gas
  95. garbage toxicity treatment
    nothing specific
  96. Image Upload
    • Strelitzia reginae
    • Bird of paradise
    • house plant that affects cats
  97. Image Upload
    • Calla palustris
    • Calla Lily
    • house plant that affects cats
  98. Image Upload
    • Philodendron cordatum
    • Heart leaf
    • house plant that affects cats
  99. Image Upload
    • Sanservieraia trifasciata
    • Mother in Law
    • house plant that affects cats
  100. Clinical signs of houseplants toxic to cats
    • Oral irritation - pain and swelling
    • acute inflammation of oropharynx
    • vomiting
    • difficulty swallowing
    • excessive drooling
    • edema of lips, tongue and throat
    • death
    • can cause permanent liver and kidney damage
  101. Toxin found in houseplants toxic to cats
    • Calcium oxalate crystals
    • CaC2O4
    • they release histamine in bloodstream.
  102. Treatment for house plant toxicity in cats
    • emesis
    • supportive care
    • rinse mouth with water or milk
    • antihistamines
  103. Hymenoptera (bees, ants, etc) species affected
    any animal
  104. Hymenoptera clinical signs
    • appear within 30 minutes
    • local pain
    • inflammation
    • respiratory distress
    • shock
    • anaphyalxis
    • DIC
    • death
    • regional edema
    • hemolysis of RBC
    • rhabdomyolysis, liver or kidney failure
  105. Hymenoptera toxins
    • Honey Bee, paper wasp - hemolysins
    • Fire ant - necrotizing, hemolytic alkaloids
    • Field ant - formic acid
    • yellow jacket - phospholipase, histamine
  106. Hymenoptera mechanism of action
    • produces IgE mediated antigenantibody reaction and acute anaphylactic response
    • venom causes histamine release
  107. General treatment of hymenoptera
    • corticosteroids
    • antihistamine
    • epineprhine
    • broad spectrum antibiotics
  108. Image Upload
    Larkspur
  109. Larkspur species affected
    humans, cattle,s heep
  110. Larkspur toxin
    • Diterpenoid alkaloids, 3 classes
    • MSAL
    • Lycotonine
    • MDL
  111. Larkspur mechanism of action
    alpha 1 nicotinic sites
  112. Larkspur PE findings
    • uneasiness
    • stiff gait
    • straddled stance
    • collapse
    • muscle tremors
    • sternal then lateral recumbency
    • abdominal discomfort
    • vomiting
    • death
    • respiratory paralysis
  113. Larkspur emergency treatment
    • Physostigmine
    • No specific antidote
    • empty the rumen
    • turn animal around if facing downhill
  114. Lead poisoning
    • Plumbism
    • affects all species
  115. Lead poisoning PE findigns
    • GI changes
    • neuro changes
    • hematologic changes
    • Dogs: behavior chanes, frothing at mouth, anorexia, weight loss, V/D, blood in feces, seizures, abdominal pain, incoordination, death
    • Cat: anorexia, seizures, V/D, depression
    • Horses: pharyngeal paralysis
  116. Lead poisoning Lab findings
    • microcytic hypochromic anemia
    • elevated liver enzymes
  117. Lead poisoning treatment
    • dimercaprol
    • no reversal agent
    • chelation therapy
  118. Image Upload
    Aminata phalloides
  119. Mushroom poisoning PE
    • death in 3-7 days
    • GI pahse last 24 hours
    • hepatorenal stage occurs 3-4 days after ingestion. elevated serum, hepatic enzyme activities, metabolic acidosis
    • Latent phase: elevations of serum ALT & APT
  120. Mushroom poisoning toxiin
    • cyclopeptides:
    • amatoxins: interfere with DNA & RNA transcription
    • phallotoxins,
    • virotoxins
  121. Mushroom Poisoning treatment
    • upper GI decontamination within 4 hours
    • silibinin dihydrogen discuccinate disodium
    • acetlycyteine
  122. Image Upload
    • Nitrate Poisoning
    • Jimsonweed: Datura stramonium
    • Pigweed: amaranthus palmeri
    • Lambsquarter: CHenopodium album
  123. Nitrate poisoning species affected
    ruminants, horses, poultry
  124. Nitrate poisoning PE findings
    • bluish/chocolate brown mucous membranes
    • dyspnea
    • rapid pulse (150 bpm)
    • salivation, bloat, tremors, staggering
    • weakness, coma, death
    • dark "chocolate-colored" blood
    • methmoglobenima
  125. Nitrate poisoning mechanism of action
    • Nitrate -> nitrite
    • nitrite -> ammonium
    • reacts with hemoglobin, lack of oxygen, death
    • duration of activity 1/2 to 4 hours
  126. nitrate poisoning treatment
    • reoxygenate blood
    • 4% methylene blue (IV)
  127. NSAID toxicity
    ibuprofin, naproxen, phenylbutazone
  128. NSAID toxicity PE findings
    VD, nausea, ataxia, weakness, lethargy, cyanosis, seizures, pale MM color, abdomina pain, facial or paw edema, icterus, depression, hypothermia, hyperventilation, hepatic and renal necrosis
  129. NSAID toxicity lab findings
    • regenerative anemia
    • neutrophilia with a left shift
    • increased BUN and creatnine
    • decreased total protein
  130. Ethylene glycol toxicity (antifreeze) lab signs
    • metabolic acidosis
    • lactic acidosis
    • hypocalcemia
    • hypocalcemia
    • hematuria
    • protinuria
    • increased creatnine
    • renal tubular epithelial damage
    • renal failure
  131. Ethylene glycol stage 1 signs
    • neurologic signs: CNS depression, stupor, ataxia, knuckling, decreased withdrawl & righting reflexes
    • dehydration
    • vomiting
    • polydipsia
    • polyuria
    • seizures
    • death
  132. ethelyene glycol stage 2 signs
    • 12-24 hours aftre ingestion
    • cardiopulmonary signs
    • tacypnea
    • tachycardia
  133. ethylene glycol toxicity stage 3 signs
    • 24-72 hours after ingestion
    • anorexia, lethargy
    • dehydration
    • vomioting/diarrhea
    • oral ulcers, salivation
    • tachypnea
    • azotemia or uremia
    • isothenuria
    • seizures, coma
  134. Ethylene glycol diagnosis
    purple color for presence of ethylene glycol in plasma of dog
  135. ethylene glycol toxicity treatment goals
    • decrease absorption of ingested EG
    • increase excretion of unmetabolized EG
    • prevent metabolism of EG
    • ethanol
  136. ethylene glycol specific treatment
    • ethanol (risky)
    • 4-methylprazole
  137. Image Upload
    • CYANIDE accumulating plants
    • wild/sweet cherry - prunus avium
    • japanese plum - prunus salicina
    • sorgum - sorgum bgicolor
    • sudan gras - sorgum sudanese
    • oral, dermal and inhalant
  138. Cyanide accumulating plants PE
    • excitement & rapid respiration rate
    • dyspnea /w tachycardia
    • salivation, lacrimation, vomiting (pigs)
    • incontinence
    • convulsions  & spasms
    • mucous membranes bright red - cyanotic
    • rumen becomes distended /w gas
    • hemorhages of heart
    • bitter almond odor
  139. cyanide accumulating plants treatment
    • sodium nitite /w sodium thiosulfate
    • repeat ever 2-4 hours as needed
    • dogs: DMAP
    • Cyanokit - hydroxycobolamin
  140. Black Widow Poisoning clinical signs
    • numbness around bite site
    • restlessness
    • muscle pain/rigidity
    • seizures
    • increased HR
    • labored breathing
    • weakness of limbs
    • paralysis
    • cats: pain, drooling, paralysis, death
  141. black widow toxin
    • neurotoxin
    • latrotoxin effects - diaphragm
  142. black widow treatment
    antivenin - expensive
  143. brown recluse spider toxin
    histerotoxin, a redefined digestive fluid
  144. brown recluse spider signs
    • 3-8 hours: red, swollen, tender
    • necrotic lesion
    • bluish, dry patch with jagged edges
    • pale, central blister with marginal redness
    • thrombocytopenia, disseminated IV coagulation, hemolysis, renal failure, fever, chills, dizziness, vomiting
  145. grape and raisin toxicity clinical signs
    • V/D within 2 hours
    • 5-6 hours lethargy, polydipsia
    • 24-72 hours acute renal failure
    • anorexia, lethargy, depression, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, tremors, hypovolemia
  146. Image Upload
    castor bean toxicity\Ricinus commuhnis
  147. castor bean toxin
    • ricin,
    • ricinus communis agglutinin

    rosary pea (abrus precatorius) lucky bean, jequirity pea (abrin)
  148. castor bean signs inhalation
    • respiratory distress
    • fever cough
    • dyspnea, nausea
    • sweating, pulmonary edema
    • cyanosis, hypotension
    • respiratory failure, circulatory collapse
    • death in 36-72 hours
  149. castor bean signs ingestion
    • abdominal pain
    • V/D (+.- blood)
    • dehydration
    • hypotension
    • halucinations, seizurs, hematuria
    • liver, spleen, kidneys necrotize
    • death in 3-7 days
  150. Acetaminophen Toxicity signs
    • 3-12 hours - mucous membranes brown or muddy color
    • heinz bodies
  151. acetaminophen toxicity
    • N-acetylcysteine
    • ascorbic acid
    • cimetidine
  152. Senecio poisoning
    Pyrrolizidine alkaloid affects hroses, cattle,s wine, chickens
  153. Image Upload
    Senecio
  154. Senecio PE
    • appear suddenly
    • weight loss, icterus
    • behavioral abnormalities due to hepatoencephalopathy
    • ascities
    • tenesmus
    • head-pressing, aimless wandering, ataxia, aggressive behavior
  155. Melamine toxicityclinical signs
    • nausea
    • vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • dehydration
    • loss of appetite
    • PU/PD
    • straining to urinate
    • bladder stones, melamine cyrtalluria
    • proteinuria
    • epithelial hyperplasia of urinary bladder
    • hematuria
  156. carbon monoxide & carbon dioxide toxicity
    • asphyxiants that combine with hemoglobin of blood
    • decreases amount of oxygen
  157. carbon monoxide signs
    • lethargy, weakness
    • drowsinees, uncoordination, disoreintation
    • vomiting, stomach pains, loss of appetite
    • chest pains, palpitations, hyperventilation
    • seizures, death
  158. carbon dioxide signs
    • shortness of breath
    • heavy breathing, quick pulse
    • dizziness, restlessness, breathlessness, nausea, vomiting, visual disortion
    • increased HR, BP, loss of consciousness
    • coma, convulsions, death
  159. carbon monoxide & dioxide toxicity treatment
    oxygen
  160. xylitol scientific name
    • pentahydroxypentane
    • birch sugar
  161. xylitol toxicity signs
    • vomiting
    • hypoglycemia
    • lethargy
    • ataxia
    • collapse
    • seizures
    • liver failure
  162. blister beetle poisoning
    horses, cattle affected
  163. blister beetle poisoning
    • sudden death
    • colic, soft stool
    • oral ulcers
    • UT damage
    • arrhythmias
  164. blister beetle toxin
    cantharidin
  165. Image Upload
    • Sweetclover
    • Melilotus officinalis/alba
  166. sweetclover toxin
    • old hay or silage
    • plant molds cause coumarin to be released as dicumarol
  167. sweetclover clinical signs
    • lameness, stiffness, weakness
    • hematomas epitaxis, bruising
    • gi bleeding in feces, urine or milk
    • pale mucous membranes
    • increased respiratory rates
    • rapid/weak pulse
  168. sweetclover treatment
    vitamin K
Author:
sinopa
ID:
285331
Card Set:
307L toxins 1-40
Updated:
2014-12-08 07:56:53
Tags:
ahs
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Description:
toxin powerpoint ALL toxins Dec 2014
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