Plant Diversity Midterm 2

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Plant Diversity Midterm 2
2014-10-09 04:49:11

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  1. Ascomycota
    no flagellated cells in life cycle
  2. Common trait between Basidiomycota and Ascomycota
    Perforated septae
  3. Classes of Fungi
    Ascomycota, basidiomycota, zygomycota
  4. Asexual reproduction in Fungi
    • spores: usually non-motile
    • fragmentation
    • fission (cell division) and budding (mitotic cell division) in certain types (usually unicellular)
  5. Zygomycota
    • no flagellated cells
    • sexual reproduction by conjugation
    • siphonous, coenocytic
  6. Pigments and chlorophyll in Phaeophyta
    • chlorophyll a and c
    • carotenoids and the xanthophyll fucoxanthin
  7. Starch in Phaeophyta
    Sugars are stored as laminarin and transported as mannitol
  8. Cell walls in Phaeophyta
    cell walls are composed of cellulose fibers; these fibers are embedded in algin
  9. Flagella in Phaeophyta
    two laterally attached flagella, one tinsel, one whiplash
  10. Asexual reproduction in Phaeophyta
    • sporophytes bear plurilocular sporangia that produce unicellular zoospores which are released and grow into a replica of the original diploid organism
    • also, less frequently, fragmentation
  11. Conceptacle
    • spherical cavities that contain the antheridia, oogonia and sterile cells called paraphyses
    • also; a reproductive cavity in Fucus in which the antheridia and oogonia are borne
  12. Receptacle
    aggregations of conceptacles
  13. Laminarin
    a polysaccaharide of glucose used in long term energy storage in the brown algae
  14. Plurilocular Sporangia
    sporangia with many cavities each bearing one diploid zoospore per cavity
  15. Unilocular Sporangia
    sporangia with a single cavity and bearing many haploid meiospores
  16. Carotenoid
    a yellow or red pigment found in plastids of organisms like the brown algae
  17. Fucoxanthin
    a brown pigment characteristic of the Phaeophyta and which gives them their color
  18. Conjugation (zygomycetes)
    fusion of two equal gametangia to form zygosporangium and zygospore
  19. Euglenophyta chlorophyll
    • a and b 
    • chloroplasts surrounded by 3 membranes
  20. Euglenophyta cell walls
    no cell walls; cells bound by plasma membrane
  21. Starch in Euglenophyta
    • no starch but paramylon
    • pyrenoids usually present, but paramylon usually formed in the cytoplasm
  22. Euglenophyta
    • most unicellular and mobile by flagella, some colonial and sessile
    • eye found in the cytoplasm
  23. Euglenophyta flagella
    • flagella have fine hairs called tinsel flagella
    • two flagella, one or both may emerge from the anterior invagination
  24. periplast or pericle
    system of grooved strips inside the plasma membrane
  25. Rhodophyta cell walls
    • calcium carbonate in some
    • agar or carageenan
    • No flagellated cells anywhere in this life cycle
    • Many reds have pit connections in walls between cells
  26. Rhodophyta pigment, chlorophyll
    • chlorophyll a only
    • phycobillins absorb blue and green light
  27. Starch in Rhodophyta
    • starch deposition occurs outside chloroplast - most red algae do not contain pyrenoids
    • Floridian starch - a short polymer of glucose
  28. Starch in Charophyceae
    • production of starch inside chloroplasts
    • possession of cellulosic cell walls
  29. Chlorophyll in Charophyceae
    chlorophyll a and b
  30. Flagella in Charophyceae
    • asymmetrical
    • have lateral or sub-apical flagella that extend at right angles from the cells
    • have multi-layered structure present at base of flagella
  31. Charophyceae life cycle
    • Monobiotic, haploid life cycle
    • production of dormant zygote
  32. Flagella in Ulvophyceae
    inserted apically
  33. Chlorophyll in Chlorophyta
    chlorophyll a and b
  34. Starch in Chlorophyta
    • Stores food reserves as starch
    • Starch stored in plastids -> in chloroplasts
    • Cell walls contain cellulose
  35. Flagella in Chlorophyta
    • 2-4
    • inserted apically
    • whiplash
    • equal length
  36. Zoospores
    unicellular mobile asexual reproductive cell; meiosis, syngamy not involved
  37. Autocolonies
    self produced copy of the parent colony
  38. Autospores
    unicellular, asexual reproductive cell that is non-mobile
  39. Fragmentation
    breaking up of a colony; most comon in filaments
  40. Types of Chlorophyta
    Charophyceae, Ulvophyceae, Chlorophyceae
  41. Cell divison in chlorophyceae
  42. Cell division in Ulvophyceae
    no phragmoplast or phycoplast
  43. Cell division in Charophyceae
  44. Kingdoms according to textbook
    • Plant-like Protista green, red,  brown algae
    • Fungus-like Protista celular slime molds plasmodial slime molds
    • Animal-like Protistaprotozoa
  45. Hyphae in Zygomycota
    aseptate, coenocytic
  46. Hyphae in Ascomycota
  47. Hyphae in Basidiomycota
    septate, with dolipore in many species
  48. Asexual reproduction in Basidiomycota
    budding, conidia (non-motile spores including urediniospores), fragmentation
  49. Asexual reproduction in Zygomycota
    non-motile spores (sporangiospores)
  50. Asexual reproduction in Ascomycota
    budding, conidia (non-motile spores), fragmentation
  51. Monobiontic Haploid
    • A life cycle with only one free-living generation; there is no alternation of generations
    • meiosis occurs in the zygote
    • zygotes are the only diploid cells
  52. Monobiontic Diploid
    • Meiosis occurs in the gametangia
    • Vegetative phases are diploid
    • Gametes are the only haploid cells.
  53. Dibiontic
    • Meiosis occurs in sporangia
    • Haploid spores develop into haploid vegetative stage (gametophyte generation)
    • Diploid zygotes develop into diploid vegetative stage (sporophyte generation)
    • a life cycle with two free living generations; alternation of generations
  54. Isomorphic
    gametophyte and sporophyte are morphologically similar
  55. Heteromorphic
    gametophyte and sporophyte are not morphologically similar
  56. Dibiontic
  57. Monobiontic haploid
  58. Monobiontic diploid
  59. both gametes motile, similar in size
  60. both gametes motile, female gamete larger than male
  61. female gamete (egg) nonmotile, male gamete (sperm) motile