Card Set Information
Review for Final
A central and defining view of rationalism is that of ___________.
An ethical absolutist could argue that discovering that ethical beliefs differ from person to person or culture to culture ____________.
does not in itself warrant moral relativity
Empiricist philosophers claim that knowledge is _________.
Ethical relativism is traditionally distinguished from ________.
The problem of evil initially claims that if God is all good, all knowing, all powerful, and there is in fact evil, then ________.
God cannot have all those attributes or God does not exist
The teleogoical argument, or argument from design, relies on ________.
The ________ argues that since an infinite causual chain is impossible, God must be an uncaused cause
Virtue ethics is about ________
identifying and cultivating morally desirable traits
emphasizing being more than doing.
looking at the kind of human being we ought to be.
The ontological argument defines God as the ________.
greatest conceivable, or the most perfect, being.
“It’s better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied, than a fool satisfied,” was said by ______________.
John Stuart Mill
Knowledge known independently of sense experience is _____.
_____ and _____ were rationalists.
Plato and Rene Descartes
Descartes applied his method of doubt to _______.
_______ is the belief that reason, without the aid of sense percpetion, is capable of arriving at some knowledge, some undeniable truth.
The view that there are innate ideas _______.
is the view that from birth ideas are present in the mind in some form
_______ is the belief that all knowledge about the world comes from or is based on the senses.
The British empiricists were _______.
Hume, Locke, and Berkeley
According to John Locke, the mind is like _______.
a blank slate
According to John Locke, _______ is founded in experience.
The taste of a banana or the smell of a flower are examples of _______ knowledge.
______ was the first to present the ontological argument in a formal, self-conscious manner.
_______ is the belief that there is only one God.
The _______ argues for the existence of God from the nature of God's being.
The _______ argues that since an infinite causal chain is impossible, God must be an uncaused cause.
By "God," Anselm meant _______.
the greatest being imaginable
Against the ontological argument, _______ reasoned that existence is not a property but a relationship between the thing conceived and the world.
The _______ aruges that the order and purpose manifest in the working of things demand a God.
_______ claim that the existnce of God can neither be proved nor disproved, and thus that we shoudl neither accept nor reject the proposition.
Ethical _______ holds that moral right and wrong depend on the culture a person belongs to.
_______ is a consequentialist theory.
______ and ______ are nonconsequentialist theories.
The divine command theory, the Kantian theory
According to ______, there is a single correct universally applicable moral standard.
Writing about ethical relativism, James Rachels points out that the fact of ethical disagreement _____.
Egoism is criticized for _____.
an inability to provide consistent moral counsel and an inability to resolve conflicts of interest
According to ethical egoism, moral actions are ones that promote our ______.
Jeremy Bentham is known for his ______.
Act utilitarianism judges the rightness or wrongness of an action ______.
- in terms of its ratio of happiness to misery within the group at larg
- on a case-by-case basis
Nonconsequentialist theories include _______.
The divine command theory of ethics is _______.
a theory that says if we do what God wills, then we do the right thing
According to Kant, nothing is good without qualification except ________.
a good will
According to the categorical imperative, we should ________.
- never act unless we are acting on a maxim we can will to become a universal law
- act as if the maxims we follow become laws of nature
- treat people as ends in themselves, never merely as means
Immanuel Kant is known for his _______.
Virtue ethics identifies the ______ of the morally good person.
The person who is deficient in the feeling of anger is ______.
The virtue ethics approach to ethics ______.
- emphasizes character and its development
- does not answer the question, "What ought I do?"
- reminds us of the importance of personal ideals
Kant held that we ________.
- have perfect duties to ourselves
- have imperfect duties to ourselves
- have imperfect duties to others