Philosophy Final

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Philosophy Final
2010-07-31 15:15:19

Review for Final
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  1. A central and defining view of rationalism is that of ___________.
    innate ideas
  2. An ethical absolutist could argue that discovering that ethical beliefs differ from person to person or culture to culture ____________.
    does not in itself warrant moral relativity
  3. Empiricist philosophers claim that knowledge is _________.
    a posteriori
  4. Ethical relativism is traditionally distinguished from ________.
    ethical absolutism
  5. The problem of evil initially claims that if God is all good, all knowing, all powerful, and there is in fact evil, then ________.
    God cannot have all those attributes or God does not exist
  6. The teleogoical argument, or argument from design, relies on ________.
  7. The ________ argues that since an infinite causual chain is impossible, God must be an uncaused cause
    cosmological argument
  8. Virtue ethics is about ________
    identifying and cultivating morally desirable traits

    emphasizing being more than doing.

    looking at the kind of human being we ought to be.
  9. The ontological argument defines God as the ________.
    greatest conceivable, or the most perfect, being.
  10. “It’s better to be a human being dissatisfied than a pig satisfied; better to be Socrates dissatisfied, than a fool satisfied,” was said by ______________.
    John Stuart Mill
  11. Knowledge known independently of sense experience is _____.
    a priori
  12. _____ and _____ were rationalists.
    Plato and Rene Descartes
  13. Descartes applied his method of doubt to _______.
  14. _______ is the belief that reason, without the aid of sense percpetion, is capable of arriving at some knowledge, some undeniable truth.
  15. The view that there are innate ideas _______.
    is the view that from birth ideas are present in the mind in some form
  16. _______ is the belief that all knowledge about the world comes from or is based on the senses.
  17. The British empiricists were _______.
    Hume, Locke, and Berkeley
  18. According to John Locke, the mind is like _______.
    a blank slate
  19. According to John Locke, _______ is founded in experience.
    all knowledge
  20. The taste of a banana or the smell of a flower are examples of _______ knowledge.
    a posteriori
  21. ______ was the first to present the ontological argument in a formal, self-conscious manner.
    Saint Anselm
  22. _______ is the belief that there is only one God.
  23. The _______ argues for the existence of God from the nature of God's being.
    ontological argument
  24. The _______ argues that since an infinite causal chain is impossible, God must be an uncaused cause.
    cosmological argument
  25. By "God," Anselm meant _______.
    the greatest being imaginable
  26. Against the ontological argument, _______ reasoned that existence is not a property but a relationship between the thing conceived and the world.
    Immanuel Kant
  27. The _______ aruges that the order and purpose manifest in the working of things demand a God.
    design argument
  28. _______ claim that the existnce of God can neither be proved nor disproved, and thus that we shoudl neither accept nor reject the proposition.
  29. Ethical _______ holds that moral right and wrong depend on the culture a person belongs to.
  30. _______ is a consequentialist theory.
  31. ______ and ______ are nonconsequentialist theories.
    The divine command theory, the Kantian theory
  32. According to ______, there is a single correct universally applicable moral standard.
    ethical absolutism
  33. Writing about ethical relativism, James Rachels points out that the fact of ethical disagreement _____.
    proves nothing
  34. Egoism is criticized for _____.
    an inability to provide consistent moral counsel and an inability to resolve conflicts of interest
  35. According to ethical egoism, moral actions are ones that promote our ______.
    long-term interests
  36. Jeremy Bentham is known for his ______.
  37. Act utilitarianism judges the rightness or wrongness of an action ______.
    - in terms of its ratio of happiness to misery within the group at larg

    - on a case-by-case basis
  38. Nonconsequentialist theories include _______.
    virtue ethics
  39. The divine command theory of ethics is _______.
    a theory that says if we do what God wills, then we do the right thing
  40. According to Kant, nothing is good without qualification except ________.
    a good will
  41. According to the categorical imperative, we should ________.
    • - never act unless we are acting on a maxim we can will to become a universal law
    • - act as if the maxims we follow become laws of nature
    • - treat people as ends in themselves, never merely as means
  42. Immanuel Kant is known for his _______.
    categorical imperative
  43. Virtue ethics identifies the ______ of the morally good person.
    character traits
  44. The person who is deficient in the feeling of anger is ______.
  45. The virtue ethics approach to ethics ______.
    • - emphasizes character and its development
    • - does not answer the question, "What ought I do?"
    • - reminds us of the importance of personal ideals
  46. Kant held that we ________.
    • - have perfect duties to ourselves
    • - have imperfect duties to ourselves
    • - have imperfect duties to others