Bio Test 2 - Vocab

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Bio Test 2 - Vocab
2014-10-09 12:51:42

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  1. alleles
    Alternative versions of a gene.
  2. base (of DNA)
    • One of the nitrogen–containing side–chain molecules attached to a sugar
    • molecule in the sugar–phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA.
  3. base pair
    Two nucleotides on complementary strands of DNA that form a pair, linked by hydrogen bonds
  4. chromosome
    • A linear or circular strand of DNA on which are found specific sequences
    • of base pairs; the human genome consists of two copies of each of 23
    • unique chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father
  5. code
    In genetics, the base sequence of a gene,
  6. deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
    • One of the two types of nucleic acid, DNA carries information about the
    • production of particular proteins in the sequences of its nucleotide
    • bases,
  7. gene
    • The basic unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a
    • chromosome that carries the information necessary for making a
    • functional product, usually a protein or an RNA molecule.
  8. genome
    The full set of DNA present in an individual organism
  9. genotype
    The genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; also, collectively, an organism�s genetic composition.
  10. intron
    A non–coding region of DNA,
  11. messenger RNA (mRNA)
    • The ribonucleic acid that â��readsâ�� the sequence for a gene in DNA and
    • then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where the next stage of
    • protein synthesis will take place,
  12. nucleotide
    A molecule containing a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogen containing molecule
  13. phenotype
    The manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual; the expression of the genotype of an organism. [
  14. trait
    Any characteristic or feature of an organism, such as red petal color in a flower,
  15. transcription
    The process by which a gene�s base sequence is copied to mRNA,
  16. translation
    The process by which mRNA, which encodes a gene�s base sequence, directs the production of a protein,
  17. transfer RNA
    RNA molecules in the cytoplasm that link specific triplet base sequences on mRNA to specific amino acids,
  18. chromosomal aberration
    • A type of mutation characterized by a change in the overall organization
    • of genes on a chromosome, such as the deletion of a section of DNA;
  19. mutation
    An alteration in the base–pair sequence of an individualâ��s DNA
  20. point mutation
    A mutation in which one base pair in DNA is replaced with another or a base pair is either inserted or deleted,
  21. promoter site
    A part of a DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that makes up a gene begins,
  22. codons
    Three–base sequences in mRNA that link with complementary tRNA molecules, which are attached to amino acids
  23. ribosomal subunits
    • The two structural parts of a ribosome, which function together to
    • translate mRNA to build a chain of amino acids that will make up a
    • protein,
  24. restriction enzymes
    Enzymes that recognize and bind to different specific sequences of four to eight bases in DNA and cut the DNA at that point
  25. DNA probe
    • A short sequence of radioactively tagged single–stranded DNA that
    • contains part of the sequence of the gene of interest, used to locate
    • that gene in a gene library
  26. gene therapy
    A therapy designed to treat or cure a disease by insertion of a functional gene to replace a defective version of that gene,
  27. plasmid
    A circular DNA molecule found outside the chromosome in bacteria,
  28. stem cells
    Undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body
  29. VNTRs
    • Regions of repeating sequences of bases in DNA that vary in the number
    • of times the sequence repeats from individual to individual and, in a
    • given individual, between homologues
  30. genetic engineering
    The manipulation of an organism�s genetic material by adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another,
  31. cloning
    The production of genetically identical cells, organisms, or DNA molecules,
  32. polymerase chain reaction
    A laboratory technique in which a fragment of DNA can be duplicated repeatedly.
  33. Human Genome Project
    A project to decode the three billion base pairs in the human genome and to identify all genes present in it,
  34. clone
    A genetically identical DNA fragment, cell, or organism produced by a single cell or organism.
  35. transgenic organism
    An organism that contains DNA from another species,
  36. hybridization
    • The process of joining two complementary strands of DNA from different
    • sources; hybridization occurs when a DNA probe is used to match with a
    • complementary sequence in a gene library.
  37. clone library
    A collection of cloned DNA fragments; also known as a gene library,
  38. biotechnology
    The modification of organisms, cells, and their molecules to achieve practical benefits.
  39. recombinant DNA technology
    Technology that depends on the combination of two or more sources of DNA into a product;
  40. phylogenetic tree
    A grouping of organisms in a hierarchical system that reflects the evolutionary history and relatedness of the organisms.
  41. histones
    Proteins around which the long, linear strands of DNA are wrapped
  42. sexual reproduction
    A type of reproduction in which offspring are produced by the fusion of gametes from two distinct sexes,
  43. daughter cells
    Cells produced by the division of a parent cell,
  44. centromere
    After replication, the region of contact between sister chromatids, which occurs near the center of the two chromosome strands.
  45. mitotic phase
    • The phase of the cell cycle during which first the genetic material and
    • nucleus, and then the rest of the cellular contents, divide,
  46. reproductive cells
    Haploid cells from two individuals that, as sperm and egg, will combine at fertilization to produce offspring
  47. telomere
    A non–coding, highly repetitive section of DNA at the tip of every eukaryotic chromosome that shortens with every cell division
  48. cell cycle
    In a cell, the alternation of activities related to cell division and those related to growth and metabolism,
  49. somatic cells
    The (usually diploid) cells of the body of an organism (in contrast to the haploid reproductive cells).
  50. binary fission
    • A type of asexual reproduction in which the parent cell divides into two
    • genetically identical daughter cells; bacteria and other prokaryotes
    • reproduce by binary fission
  51. complementary base
    A base on a strand of double–stranded DNA that is a pairing partner to a base on the other strand
  52. complementarity
    • The characteristic of double–stranded DNA that the base on one strand
    • always has the same pairing partner, or complementary base, on the other
    • strand,
  53. asexual reproduction
    • A type of reproduction common in prokaryotes, in which the identical
    • daughter cells inherit their DNA from a single parent cell,
  54. replication
    The process by which DNA duplicates itself in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in preparation for cell division,
  55. cytokinesis
    • In the cell cycle, the stage following mitosis in which cytoplasm and
    • organelles duplicate and are divided into approximately equal parts and
    • the cell separates into two daughter cells; in meiosis, two diploid
    • daughter cells are formed in cytokinesis following telophase I and four
    • haploid daughter cells are formed in cytokinesis following telophase II.
  56. mitosis
    • The division of a nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei, along
    • with cytokinesis, leads to the formation of two identical daughter
    • cells.
  57. interphase
    • In the cell cycle, the phase during which the cell grows and functions;
    • during this phase, replication of DNA occurs in preparation for cell
    • division.
  58. parent cells
    Cells that divide to form daughter cells, which are genetically identical to the parent cell,
  59. apoptosis
    • Programmed cell death, which takes place particularly in parts of the
    • body where the cells are likely to accumulate significant genetic damage
    • over time and are therefore at high risk of becoming cancerous.
  60. anaphase
    • The third phase of mitosis, in which the sister chromatids are pulled
    • apart by the spindle fibers, with a full set of chromosomes going to
    • opposite sides of the cell
  61. chromatid
    One of the two strands of a replicated chromosome, so called because it readily takes a stain.
  62. cancer
    Unrestrained cell growth and division.
  63. prophase
    • The first phase of mitosis, in which the nuclear membrane breaks down,
    • sister chromatids condense, and the spindle forms
  64. sister chromatids
    The two identical strands of a replicated chromosome,
  65. metaphase
    • The second phase of mitosis, in which the sister chromatids line up at
    • the center of the cell; in meiosis, the homologues line up at the center
    • of the cell in metaphase I and the sister chromatids line up in
    • metaphase II.
  66. telophase
    • The fourth and last phase of mitosis, in which the chromosomes begin to
    • uncoil and the nuclear membrane is reassembled around them;
  67. spindle fibers
    • Fibers that extend from one pole of a cell to the other, which pull the
    • sister chromatids apart in the anaphase stage of mitosis or the anaphase
    • II stage of meiosis,
  68. spindle
    • A part of the cytoskeleton of a cell, formed in prophase (in mitosis) or
    • in prophase I (in meiosis), from which extend fibers that organize and
    • separate the sister chromatids,
  69. crossing over
    • The exchange of some genetic material from the father with some from the
    • mother that occurs in the prophase I stage of meiosis, producing a
    • mixture of paternal and maternal genetic material on each chromatid,
  70. karyotype
    A visual display of an individual�s full set of chromosomes.
  71. homologous pair
    The maternal and paternal copies of a chromosome.
  72. gonads
    The ovaries and testes in sexually reproducing animals.
  73. diploid
    Describes cells that have two copies of each chromosome
  74. nondisjunction
    The unequal distribution of chromosomes during cell division
  75. X and Y chromosomes
    The human sex chromosomes.
  76. hermaphrodite
    An organism that produces both male and female gametes
  77. placenta
    • The
    • organ formed during pregnancy (and expelled at birth) that allows the
    • transfer of gases, nutrients, and waste products between mother and
    • fetus
  78. haploid
    Describes cells that have a single copy of each chromosome
  79. fertilization
    The fusion of two reproductive cells,
  80. meiosis
    • In sexually reproducing organisms, a process of nuclear division in the
    • gonads that, along with cytokinesis, produces reproductive cells that
    • have half as much genetic material as the parent cell, and that all
    • differ from each other genetically.