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Alternative versions of a gene.
base (of DNA)
- One of the nitrogen–containing side–chain molecules attached to a sugar
- molecule in the sugar–phosphate backbone of DNA and RNA.
Two nucleotides on complementary strands of DNA that form a pair, linked by hydrogen bonds
- A linear or circular strand of DNA on which are found specific sequences
- of base pairs; the human genome consists of two copies of each of 23
- unique chromosomes, one from the mother and one from the father
In genetics, the base sequence of a gene,
deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA)
- One of the two types of nucleic acid, DNA carries information about the
- production of particular proteins in the sequences of its nucleotide
- The basic unit of heredity; a sequence of DNA nucleotides on a
- chromosome that carries the information necessary for making a
- functional product, usually a protein or an RNA molecule.
The full set of DNA present in an individual organism
The genes that an organism carries for a particular trait; also, collectively, an organismâ��s genetic composition.
A non–coding region of DNA,
messenger RNA (mRNA)
- The ribonucleic acid that â��readsâ�� the sequence for a gene in DNA and
- then moves from the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where the next stage of
- protein synthesis will take place,
A molecule containing a phosphate group, a sugar molecule, and a nitrogen containing molecule
The manifested structure, function, and behaviors of an individual; the expression of the genotype of an organism. [
Any characteristic or feature of an organism, such as red petal color in a flower,
The process by which a geneâ��s base sequence is copied to mRNA,
The process by which mRNA, which encodes a geneâ��s base sequence, directs the production of a protein,
RNA molecules in the cytoplasm that link specific triplet base sequences on mRNA to specific amino acids,
- A type of mutation characterized by a change in the overall organization
- of genes on a chromosome, such as the deletion of a section of DNA;
An alteration in the base–pair sequence of an individualâ��s DNA
A mutation in which one base pair in DNA is replaced with another or a base pair is either inserted or deleted,
A part of a DNA molecule that indicates where the sequence of base pairs that makes up a gene begins,
Three–base sequences in mRNA that link with complementary tRNA molecules, which are attached to amino acids
- The two structural parts of a ribosome, which function together to
- translate mRNA to build a chain of amino acids that will make up a
Enzymes that recognize and bind to different specific sequences of four to eight bases in DNA and cut the DNA at that point
- A short sequence of radioactively tagged single–stranded DNA that
- contains part of the sequence of the gene of interest, used to locate
- that gene in a gene library
A therapy designed to treat or cure a disease by insertion of a functional gene to replace a defective version of that gene,
A circular DNA molecule found outside the chromosome in bacteria,
Undifferentiated cells that have the ability to develop into any type of cell in the body
- Regions of repeating sequences of bases in DNA that vary in the number
- of times the sequence repeats from individual to individual and, in a
- given individual, between homologues
The manipulation of an organismâ��s genetic material by adding, deleting, or transplanting genes from one organism to another,
The production of genetically identical cells, organisms, or DNA molecules,
polymerase chain reaction
A laboratory technique in which a fragment of DNA can be duplicated repeatedly.
Human Genome Project
A project to decode the three billion base pairs in the human genome and to identify all genes present in it,
A genetically identical DNA fragment, cell, or organism produced by a single cell or organism.
An organism that contains DNA from another species,
- The process of joining two complementary strands of DNA from different
- sources; hybridization occurs when a DNA probe is used to match with a
- complementary sequence in a gene library.
A collection of cloned DNA fragments; also known as a gene library,
The modification of organisms, cells, and their molecules to achieve practical benefits.
recombinant DNA technology
Technology that depends on the combination of two or more sources of DNA into a product;
A grouping of organisms in a hierarchical system that reflects the evolutionary history and relatedness of the organisms.
Proteins around which the long, linear strands of DNA are wrapped
A type of reproduction in which offspring are produced by the fusion of gametes from two distinct sexes,
Cells produced by the division of a parent cell,
After replication, the region of contact between sister chromatids, which occurs near the center of the two chromosome strands.
- The phase of the cell cycle during which first the genetic material and
- nucleus, and then the rest of the cellular contents, divide,
Haploid cells from two individuals that, as sperm and egg, will combine at fertilization to produce offspring
A non–coding, highly repetitive section of DNA at the tip of every eukaryotic chromosome that shortens with every cell division
In a cell, the alternation of activities related to cell division and those related to growth and metabolism,
The (usually diploid) cells of the body of an organism (in contrast to the haploid reproductive cells).
- A type of asexual reproduction in which the parent cell divides into two
- genetically identical daughter cells; bacteria and other prokaryotes
- reproduce by binary fission
A base on a strand of double–stranded DNA that is a pairing partner to a base on the other strand
- The characteristic of double–stranded DNA that the base on one strand
- always has the same pairing partner, or complementary base, on the other
- A type of reproduction common in prokaryotes, in which the identical
- daughter cells inherit their DNA from a single parent cell,
The process by which DNA duplicates itself in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes in preparation for cell division,
- In the cell cycle, the stage following mitosis in which cytoplasm and
- organelles duplicate and are divided into approximately equal parts and
- the cell separates into two daughter cells; in meiosis, two diploid
- daughter cells are formed in cytokinesis following telophase I and four
- haploid daughter cells are formed in cytokinesis following telophase II.
- The division of a nucleus into two genetically identical nuclei, along
- with cytokinesis, leads to the formation of two identical daughter
- In the cell cycle, the phase during which the cell grows and functions;
- during this phase, replication of DNA occurs in preparation for cell
Cells that divide to form daughter cells, which are genetically identical to the parent cell,
- Programmed cell death, which takes place particularly in parts of the
- body where the cells are likely to accumulate significant genetic damage
- over time and are therefore at high risk of becoming cancerous.
- The third phase of mitosis, in which the sister chromatids are pulled
- apart by the spindle fibers, with a full set of chromosomes going to
- opposite sides of the cell
One of the two strands of a replicated chromosome, so called because it readily takes a stain.
Unrestrained cell growth and division.
- The first phase of mitosis, in which the nuclear membrane breaks down,
- sister chromatids condense, and the spindle forms
The two identical strands of a replicated chromosome,
- The second phase of mitosis, in which the sister chromatids line up at
- the center of the cell; in meiosis, the homologues line up at the center
- of the cell in metaphase I and the sister chromatids line up in
- metaphase II.
- The fourth and last phase of mitosis, in which the chromosomes begin to
- uncoil and the nuclear membrane is reassembled around them;
- Fibers that extend from one pole of a cell to the other, which pull the
- sister chromatids apart in the anaphase stage of mitosis or the anaphase
- II stage of meiosis,
- A part of the cytoskeleton of a cell, formed in prophase (in mitosis) or
- in prophase I (in meiosis), from which extend fibers that organize and
- separate the sister chromatids,
- The exchange of some genetic material from the father with some from the
- mother that occurs in the prophase I stage of meiosis, producing a
- mixture of paternal and maternal genetic material on each chromatid,
A visual display of an individual�s full set of chromosomes.
The maternal and paternal copies of a chromosome.
The ovaries and testes in sexually reproducing animals.
Describes cells that have two copies of each chromosome
The unequal distribution of chromosomes during cell division
X and Y chromosomes
The human sex chromosomes.
An organism that produces both male and female gametes
- organ formed during pregnancy (and expelled at birth) that allows the
- transfer of gases, nutrients, and waste products between mother and
Describes cells that have a single copy of each chromosome
The fusion of two reproductive cells,
- In sexually reproducing organisms, a process of nuclear division in the
- gonads that, along with cytokinesis, produces reproductive cells that
- have half as much genetic material as the parent cell, and that all
- differ from each other genetically.