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What is a complete diet?
Diet that supports life and maintain reproduction.
What is a balanced diet?
Diet that supports life, maintains reproduction and contains all the nutrients needed. (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, etc.)
3 basic forms of pet food:
- - Dry: 3-11% water
- - Semi moist: 25-35% water
- - Moist: 70-83% water
"True cost of feeding" means?
Cost of feeding pet per day.
What form of pet food is a major course of calories?
Dry pet food.
Why is dry pet food most often used out of the 3 forms of pet food?
- 1) Cost effective
- 2) Convenient
- 3) Easy to use
- 4) Doesn't spoil
Amount to feed:
- Small breeds (less than 20#)
- - 30% more calories
- - Pound for pound
- Medium breeds (20-75#)
- - 30 calories per pound of body weight
- Large breeds (over 75#)
- - 15% fewer calories per pound than
- medium dogs.
Example of calculating food per pound:
1) 80# X 30 = 2400 (30 calories per #)
- 2) 2400 X .15 = 360.00 (Because large
- breeds have 15%
- fewer calories.)
3) 2400 - 360.00 = 2,040 calories per day.
Dogs at Tomball get ____ oz of food per pound.
3 factors that influence the amount of food pets will require:
- 1) Age
- 2) Activity
- 3) Temperature
Each 10 degree drop in temperature requires a 7.5% _____ in calories.
Each 10 degree increase requires a 7.5% ____ in calories.
Example of calculating calories with temperature change:
- (+7.5%) (-7.5%)
- 60° <---------- 70° ----------> 80°
- 1200 cal
1200 X .075 = 90.000
- So, you subtract 90 calories from 1200 calories if the temperature increased.
- And you would add 90 calories to 1200 calories in the temperature decreased.
Meat/scraps should never account for more then ___% of daily diet.
Dogs should receive _________ times the water as solid dry food at all times.
Two and one-half.
Newborns eyes are closed the first _____ days of their life.
Each litter mate should gain approx. ______ each week during lactation.
It's birth weight.
For example, it a puppy weighed 2 oz when it was born, it would weight 4 oz the next week and then weigh 6 oz during it's third week.
_____ is the key nutritional factor that newborns must get immediately after birth.
- 1.) Fluid for vital circulatory expansion.
- 2.) Maternal antibodies
- -passive immunity
- 3.) Vaccines
- -active immunity
When to feed newborns:
- 0-4 months = 4X a day
- 4-10 months = 2-3X a day
- 10 months and over = 1X a day
Good Puppy Formula:
- - 1 cup dry puppy food
- - 1 cup canned puppy food
- - 1 tsp. pancake/waffle syrup
- - 1 cup whole milk
(Start after 3 weeks of age)
Formula for feeding a newborn:
1 oz / # / 24 hours (DRY ONLY)
Formula for feeding an adult:
0.5 oz / # / 24 hours (DRY)
(1/3 oz for shelter dogs)
1.5 oz / # / 24 hours (MOIST)
Peak lactation in the bitch and queen occurs at ___ weeks and concludes at _____ weeks.
At ____ weeks old you can introduce gruel to puppies/kittens.
- - Don't feed bitch on day of weaning
- - 2nd day = Feed 1/4 normal amount
- - 3rd day = Feed 1/2 normal amount
- - 4th day = Feed 3/4 normal amount
- - 5th day = Reg. amount.
When feeding orphaned newborns you should feed milk ____ in protein and ____ in lactose than bovine milk.
Orphaned Newborns Formula:
1 oz / 1 gram of body weight / 24 hrs in 4 doses
How much to feed orphaned newborns?
- - 1st week = 10 mLs of milk at 10 oz
- - Converts to 1 mL/oz of body weight
The stomach capacity of a newborn is ____ mLs per pound of body weight.
Solid food can be added to orphaned newborns food bowl ___ days after lapping starts.
Cats eat food based on ___ and ____.
Shape and color
The average cat is ____ lbs.
Cats are fed _____ calories per pound of body weight.
Implantation in uterus occurs between ___ and ___ day of gestation.
12th and 14th
Puppy/kitten enjoy a ______ that touches the endometrium at 360 degrees.
More than one offspring
What kind of shot will stop a pregnancy?
3 factors involved with the achievement of optimal development of the newborn:
- 1. Genetics - Most important
- 2. Nutrition
- 3. Care and management
#1 cause of death in puppies and kitten is _____.
The bitch provides heat to her pups in these ways:
- - Heat with moisture
- - Stimulation of alimentary tract
- - Circulation
- - Mothering of newborn
- - Security
- - Milk
Temperature Guidelines for Puppies:
- 1st week = 90-85 degrees
- 2nd week = 85 degrees
- 3rd week = 80 degrees
- 4th week 75-70 degrees
- 5th week = 70 degrees
Milk replacers for bitch and queen:
- Bitch - Bordens Esbilac
- Queen - KLM
OR Red Top Whole Milk
A ___ to ___ hour time period is ideal when switching a newborn from its mothers milk to a milk replacer.
A dog that is not training should eat regular dog food with ___% protein; ___ calories.
A training dog should eat dog food with a greater nutrient density with ___% protein; ___ calories.
- - 20% ; 1600 calories
- - 26% ; 1750 calories
10% loss of water will result in _____.
Amount to feed a mature cat:
- Dry = free choice
- Semi-moist = 2X a day
- Canned = 2-3X a day
The amount of food required by the dog and cat is dependent on several factors:
- 1. Age
- 2. Activity
- 3. Temperature
- 4. Body metabolism
Resting Energy Requirement
Parenteral Nutrition =
- - PN
- - Delivery of nutrition through IV
- - 60 mL / kg / day
3 Nutritional Diseases:
- 1. Chronic Renal Failure
- 2. Congestive Heart Failure
- 3. Gastrointestinal Disease
What are Nephrons?
Filters in kidneys that separate the good and bad components from blood as it flows through the kidney.
Growing dogs = ___ protein
Main dogs = ___ protein
signs of kidney
disease = ___ protein
Causes of Congestive Heart Failure:
- - Mitral value insufficiency
- - Heartworms
- - Neoplasia
- - Etc.
Congestive Heart Failure triggers the _________.
Objectives for Dietary Management:
- 1. Reduce bodys need for GI function
- 2. Supply nutrients in forms that are easily digested and absorbed.
The #1 form of malnutrition is ___.
____% of all pet dogs and cats are obese.
#1 cause of obesity is _____.
_____ is excessive accumulation of body fat.
5 causes of obesity:
- 1. Overfeeding
- 2. Hormonal
- 3. Castration
- 4. Psychological
- 5. Physiological gluttony
2 diagnoses associated with obesity:
- 1. Hypothyroidism
- 2. Hyperadrenocorticism
4 health risks associated with obesity:
- 1. Coronary Heart Disease
- 2. Diabetes Mellitus
- 3. Hypertension
- 4. Pulmonary disorders
What is coprophagy?
Animal consumes it's own feces.
- - No exact cause.
- - Thought to be caused from boredom.
- - Prevent with balanced diet.
- - Rodents eat their own feces for nutrition
- - Horses eat their own feces from maternal pheromone.
Canine c/d =
For struvite urolithiasis
Canine d/d =
For adverse reactions to food.
Canine g/d =
For older dogs at risk for kidney and heart disease.
Canine i/d =
For GI conditions, pancreatitis and colinitis.
Canine k/d =
For kidney failure and moderate heart disease.
Canine l/d =
For liver disease, Hepatic encephalopathy and Cooper Storage disease.
Canine p/d =
For growth and recuperative conditions.
Canine r/d =
For obesity and Lymphangiectasia.
Canine s/d =
For dissolution of Struvite crystals.
Canine u/d =
For urolithiasis and urate and crystine crystals.
Canine w/d =
For diabetes mellitus.