Canine & Feline: Nutrition

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Author:
hbreard
ID:
285374
Filename:
Canine & Feline: Nutrition
Updated:
2014-10-14 21:54:01
Tags:
Canine Feline Nutrition
Folders:
Canine and Feline
Description:
Nutrition
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  1. What is a complete diet?
    Diet that supports life and maintain reproduction.
  2. What is a balanced diet?
    Diet that supports life, maintains reproduction and contains all the nutrients needed. (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, etc.)
  3. 3 basic forms of pet food:
    • - Dry: 3-11% water
    • - Semi moist: 25-35% water
    • - Moist: 70-83% water
  4. "True cost of feeding" means?
    Cost of feeding pet per day.
  5. What form of pet food is a major course of calories?
    Dry pet food.
  6. Why is dry pet food most often used out of the 3 forms of pet food?
    • 1) Cost effective
    • 2) Convenient
    • 3) Easy to use
    • 4) Doesn't spoil
  7. Amount to feed:
    • Small breeds (less than 20#)
    •     - 30% more calories
    •     - Pound for pound

    • Medium breeds (20-75#)
    •     - 30 calories per pound of body weight

    • Large breeds (over 75#)
    •     - 15% fewer calories per pound than 
    •        medium dogs.
  8. Example of calculating food per pound:
    1)   80# X 30 = 2400  (30 calories per #)

    • 2)   2400 X .15 = 360.00 (Because large
    •                                       breeds have 15%
    •                                       fewer calories.)

    3)  2400 - 360.00 = 2,040 calories per day.
  9. Dogs at Tomball get ____ oz of food per pound.
    1/3
  10. 3 factors that influence the amount of food pets will require:
    • 1) Age
    • 2) Activity
    • 3) Temperature
  11. Each 10 degree drop in temperature requires a 7.5% _____ in calories.
    Each 10 degree increase requires a 7.5% ____ in calories.
    • - increase
    • - decrease
  12. Example of calculating calories with temperature change:
    •          (+7.5%)       (-7.5%)
    • 60° <---------- 70° ----------> 80° 
    •                   1200 cal


    1200 X .075 = 90.000

    • So, you subtract 90 calories from 1200 calories if the temperature increased.
    • And you would add 90 calories to 1200 calories in the temperature decreased.
  13. Meat/scraps should never account for more then ___% of daily diet.
    15%
  14. Dogs should receive _________ times the water as solid dry food at all times.
    Two and one-half.
  15. Newborns eyes are closed the first _____ days of their life.
    7-10 days
  16. Each litter mate should gain approx. ______ each week during lactation.
    It's birth weight.


    For example, it a puppy weighed 2 oz when it was born, it would weight 4 oz the next week and then weigh 6 oz during it's third week.
  17. _____ is the key nutritional factor that newborns must get immediately after birth.
    Colostrum
  18. Colostrum provides:
    • 1.) Fluid for vital circulatory expansion.
    • 2.) Maternal antibodies
    •         -passive immunity
    • 3.) Vaccines
    •         -active immunity
  19. When to feed newborns:
    • 0-4 months = 4X a day
    • 4-10 months = 2-3X a day
    • 10 months and over = 1X a day
  20. Good Puppy Formula:
    • - 1 cup dry puppy food
    • - 1 cup canned puppy food
    • - 1 tsp. pancake/waffle syrup
    • - 1 cup whole milk

    (Start after 3 weeks of age)
  21. Formula for feeding a newborn:
    1 oz / # / 24 hours (DRY ONLY)
  22. Formula for feeding an adult:
    0.5 oz / # / 24 hours (DRY)

    (1/3 oz for shelter dogs)

    1.5 oz / # / 24 hours (MOIST)
  23. Peak lactation in the bitch and queen occurs at ___ weeks and concludes at _____ weeks.
    • - 4 weeks
    • - 5-6 weeks
  24. At ____ weeks old you can introduce gruel to puppies/kittens.
    3 weeks
  25. Weaning Formula:
    • - Don't feed bitch on day of weaning
    • - 2nd day = Feed 1/4 normal amount
    • - 3rd day = Feed 1/2 normal amount
    • - 4th day = Feed 3/4 normal amount
    • - 5th day = Reg. amount.
  26. When feeding orphaned newborns you should feed milk ____ in protein and ____ in lactose than bovine milk.
    • - Higher
    • - Lower
  27. Orphaned Newborns Formula:
    1 oz / 1 gram of body weight / 24 hrs in 4 doses
  28. How much to feed orphaned newborns?
    • - 1st week = 10 mLs of milk at 10 oz
    • - Converts to 1 mL/oz of body weight
  29. The stomach capacity of a newborn is ____ mLs per pound of body weight.
    25 mLs
  30. Solid food can be added to orphaned newborns food bowl ___ days after lapping starts.
    2 days
  31. Cats eat food based on ___ and ____.
    Shape and color
  32. The average cat is ____ lbs.
    7-9
  33. Cats are fed _____ calories per pound of body weight.
    32-34 calories
  34. Implantation in uterus occurs between ___ and ___ day of gestation.
    12th and 14th
  35. Puppy/kitten enjoy a ______ that touches the endometrium at 360 degrees.
    "Zonary placenta"
  36. Polytocous =
    More than one offspring
  37. What kind of shot will stop a pregnancy?
    Mismate Shot
  38. 3 factors involved with the achievement of optimal development of the newborn:
    • 1. Genetics - Most important
    • 2. Nutrition
    • 3. Care and management
  39. #1 cause of death in puppies and kitten is _____.
    Hyperthermia
  40. The bitch provides heat to her pups in these ways:
    • - Heat with moisture
    • - Stimulation of alimentary tract
    • - Circulation
    • - Mothering of newborn
    • - Security
    • - Milk
  41. Temperature Guidelines for Puppies:
    • 1st week = 90-85 degrees
    • 2nd week = 85 degrees
    • 3rd week = 80 degrees
    • 4th week 75-70 degrees
    • 5th week = 70 degrees
  42. Milk replacers for bitch and queen:
    • Bitch - Bordens Esbilac
    • Queen - KLM

    OR Red Top Whole Milk
  43. A ___ to ___ hour time period is ideal when switching a newborn from its mothers milk to a milk replacer.
    3-4 hours
  44. A dog that is not training should eat regular dog food with ___% protein; ___ calories.
    A training dog should eat dog food with a greater nutrient density with ___% protein; ___ calories.
    • - 20% ; 1600 calories
    • - 26% ; 1750 calories
  45. 10% loss of water will result in _____.
    Death
  46. Amount to feed a mature cat:
    • Dry = free choice
    • Semi-moist = 2X a day
    • Canned = 2-3X a day
  47. The amount of food required by the dog and cat is dependent on several factors:
    • 1. Age
    • 2. Activity
    • 3. Temperature 
    • 4. Body metabolism
  48. RER =
    Resting Energy Requirement
  49. Parenteral Nutrition =
    • - PN
    • - Delivery of nutrition through IV
    • - 60 mL / kg / day
  50. 3 Nutritional Diseases:
    • 1. Chronic Renal Failure
    • 2. Congestive Heart Failure
    • 3. Gastrointestinal Disease
  51. What are Nephrons?
    Filters in kidneys that separate the good and bad components from blood as it flows through the kidney.
  52. Growing dogs = ___ protein
    Main dogs = ___ protein
    Early clinical
    signs of kidney
    disease = ___ protein
    • - 26%
    • - 20%
    • - 12%
  53. Causes of Congestive Heart Failure:
    • - Mitral value insufficiency
    • - Heartworms
    • - Neoplasia
    • - Etc.
  54. Congestive Heart Failure triggers the _________.
    Renin-Angiotensin Reaction
  55. Objectives for Dietary Management:
    • 1. Reduce bodys need for GI function
    • 2. Supply nutrients in forms that are easily digested and absorbed.
  56. The #1 form of malnutrition is ___.
    Obesity
  57. ____% of all pet dogs and cats are obese.
    44%
  58. #1 cause of obesity is _____.
    Client overfeeding
  59. _____ is excessive accumulation of body fat.
    Obesity
  60. 5 causes of obesity:
    • 1. Overfeeding
    • 2. Hormonal
    • 3. Castration
    • 4. Psychological
    • 5. Physiological gluttony
  61. 2 diagnoses associated with obesity:
    • 1. Hypothyroidism
    • 2. Hyperadrenocorticism
  62. 4 health risks associated with obesity:
    • 1. Coronary Heart Disease
    • 2. Diabetes Mellitus
    • 3. Hypertension
    • 4. Pulmonary disorders
  63. What is coprophagy?
    Animal consumes it's own feces.
  64. Coprophagy Facts:
    • - No exact cause.
    • - Thought to be caused from boredom.
    • - Prevent with balanced diet.
    • - Rodents eat their own feces for nutrition
    • - Horses eat their own feces from maternal pheromone.
  65. Canine c/d =
    For struvite urolithiasis
  66. Canine d/d =
    For adverse reactions to food.
  67. Canine g/d =
    For older dogs at risk for kidney and heart disease.
  68. Canine i/d =
    For GI conditions, pancreatitis and colinitis.
  69. Canine k/d =
    For kidney failure and moderate heart disease.
  70. Canine l/d =
    For liver disease, Hepatic encephalopathy and Cooper Storage disease.
  71. Canine p/d =
    For growth and recuperative conditions.
  72. Canine r/d =
    For obesity and Lymphangiectasia.
  73. Canine s/d =
    For dissolution of Struvite crystals.
  74. Canine u/d =
    For urolithiasis and urate and crystine crystals.
  75. Canine w/d =
    For diabetes mellitus.

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