Canine & Feline: Nutrition
Card Set Information
Canine & Feline: Nutrition
Canine Feline Nutrition
Canine and Feline
What is a complete diet?
Diet that supports life and maintain reproduction.
What is a balanced diet?
Diet that supports life, maintains reproduction and contains all the nutrients needed. (vitamins, minerals, carbohydrates, etc.)
3 basic forms of pet food:
: 3-11% water
- Semi moist
: 25-35% water
: 70-83% water
"True cost of feeding" means?
Cost of feeding pet per day.
What form of pet food is a major course of calories?
Dry pet food.
Why is dry pet food most often used out of the 3 forms of pet food?
1) Cost effective
3) Easy to use
4) Doesn't spoil
Amount to feed:
Small breeds (less than 20#)
- 30% more calories
- Pound for pound
Medium breeds (20-75#)
- 30 calories per pound of body weight
Large breeds (over 75#)
- 15% fewer calories per pound than
Example of calculating food per pound:
1) 80# X 30 = 2400 (30 calories per #)
2) 2400 X .15 = 360.00 (Because large
breeds have 15%
3) 2400 - 360.00 = 2,040 calories per day.
Dogs at Tomball get ____ oz of food per pound.
3 factors that influence the amount of food pets will require:
Each 10 degree drop in temperature requires a 7.5% _____ in calories.
Each 10 degree increase requires a 7.5% ____ in calories.
Example of calculating calories with temperature change:
60° <---------- 70° ----------> 80°
1200 X .075 = 90.000
So, you subtract 90 calories from 1200 calories if the temperature increased.
And you would add 90 calories to 1200 calories in the temperature decreased.
Meat/scraps should never account for more then ___% of daily diet.
Dogs should receive _________ times the water as solid dry food at all times.
Two and one-half.
Newborns eyes are closed the first _____ days of their life.
Each litter mate should gain approx. ______ each week during lactation.
It's birth weight.
For example, it a puppy weighed 2 oz when it was born, it would weight 4 oz the next week and then weigh 6 oz during it's third week.
_____ is the key nutritional factor that newborns must get immediately after birth.
1.) Fluid for vital circulatory expansion.
2.) Maternal antibodies
When to feed newborns:
0-4 months = 4X a day
4-10 months = 2-3X a day
10 months and over = 1X a day
Good Puppy Formula:
- 1 cup dry puppy food
- 1 cup canned puppy food
- 1 tsp. pancake/waffle syrup
- 1 cup whole milk
(Start after 3 weeks of age)
Formula for feeding a newborn:
1 oz / # / 24 hours (DRY ONLY)
Formula for feeding an adult:
0.5 oz / # / 24 hours (DRY)
(1/3 oz for shelter dogs)
1.5 oz / # / 24 hours (MOIST)
Peak lactation in the bitch and queen occurs at ___ weeks and concludes at _____ weeks.
- 4 weeks
- 5-6 weeks
At ____ weeks old you can introduce gruel to puppies/kittens.
- Don't feed bitch on day of weaning
- 2nd day = Feed 1/4 normal amount
- 3rd day = Feed 1/2 normal amount
- 4th day = Feed 3/4 normal amount
- 5th day = Reg. amount.
When feeding orphaned newborns you should feed milk ____ in protein and ____ in lactose than bovine milk.
Orphaned Newborns Formula:
1 oz / 1 gram of body weight / 24 hrs in 4 doses
How much to feed orphaned newborns?
- 1st week = 10 mLs of milk at 10 oz
- Converts to 1 mL/oz of body weight
The stomach capacity of a newborn is ____ mLs per pound of body weight.
Solid food can be added to orphaned newborns food bowl ___ days after lapping starts.
Cats eat food based on ___ and ____.
Shape and color
The average cat is ____ lbs.
Cats are fed _____ calories per pound of body weight.
Implantation in uterus occurs between ___ and ___ day of gestation.
12th and 14th
Puppy/kitten enjoy a ______ that touches the endometrium at 360 degrees.
More than one offspring
What kind of shot will stop a pregnancy?
3 factors involved with the achievement of optimal development of the newborn:
1. Genetics - Most important
3. Care and management
#1 cause of death in puppies and kitten is _____.
The bitch provides heat to her pups in these ways:
- Heat with moisture
- Stimulation of alimentary tract
- Mothering of newborn
Temperature Guidelines for Puppies:
1st week = 90-85 degrees
2nd week = 85 degrees
3rd week = 80 degrees
4th week 75-70 degrees
5th week = 70 degrees
Milk replacers for bitch and queen:
Bitch - Bordens Esbilac
Queen - KLM
OR Red Top Whole Milk
A ___ to ___ hour time period is ideal when switching a newborn from its mothers milk to a milk replacer.
A dog that is not training should eat regular dog food with ___% protein; ___ calories.
A training dog should eat dog food with a greater nutrient density with ___% protein; ___ calories.
- 20% ; 1600 calories
- 26% ; 1750 calories
10% loss of water will result in _____.
Amount to feed a mature cat:
Dry = free choice
Semi-moist = 2X a day
Canned = 2-3X a day
The amount of food required by the dog and cat is dependent on several factors:
4. Body metabolism
Resting Energy Requirement
Parenteral Nutrition =
- Delivery of nutrition through IV
- 60 mL / kg / day
3 Nutritional Diseases:
1. Chronic Renal Failure
2. Congestive Heart Failure
3. Gastrointestinal Disease
What are Nephrons?
Filters in kidneys that separate the good and bad components from blood as it flows through the kidney.
Growing dogs = ___ protein
Main dogs = ___ protein
signs of kidney
disease = ___ protein
Causes of Congestive Heart Failure:
- Mitral value insufficiency
Congestive Heart Failure triggers the _________.
Objectives for Dietary Management:
1. Reduce bodys need for GI function
2. Supply nutrients in forms that are easily digested and absorbed.
The #1 form of malnutrition is ___.
____% of all pet dogs and cats are obese.
#1 cause of obesity is _____.
_____ is excessive accumulation of body fat.
5 causes of obesity:
5. Physiological gluttony
2 diagnoses associated with obesity:
4 health risks associated with obesity:
1. Coronary Heart Disease
2. Diabetes Mellitus
4. Pulmonary disorders
What is coprophagy?
Animal consumes it's own feces.
- No exact cause.
- Thought to be caused from boredom.
- Prevent with balanced diet.
- Rodents eat their own feces for nutrition
- Horses eat their own feces from maternal pheromone.
Canine c/d =
For struvite urolithiasis
Canine d/d =
For adverse reactions to food.
Canine g/d =
For older dogs at risk for kidney and heart disease.
Canine i/d =
For GI conditions, pancreatitis and colinitis.
Canine k/d =
For kidney failure and moderate heart disease.
Canine l/d =
For liver disease, Hepatic encephalopathy and Cooper Storage disease.
Canine p/d =
For growth and recuperative conditions.
Canine r/d =
For obesity and Lymphangiectasia.
Canine s/d =
For dissolution of Struvite crystals.
Canine u/d =
For urolithiasis and urate and crystine crystals.
Canine w/d =
For diabetes mellitus.