BIO 381 Term Exam 2

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hcunning
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285381
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BIO 381 Term Exam 2
Updated:
2014-10-15 20:37:18
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pollution biology
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Cards for second term exam
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  1. Limnology
    study of lakes
  2. Environmental indicators of pollution from aquatic systems
    Diatoms (algae), chrysophytes, chironomids
  3. Environmental indicators of pollution from the land
    pollen, mineral particles, insect remains
  4. Environmental indicators of pollution from the atmosphere
    carbon particles (carbon combustion), fly ash (coal combustion), metals and other pollutants (industry)
  5. Detecting pollutants: mesocosm approach
    • big bags filled with lake water, put contaminants in them
    • water inside the bag is separated from rest of lake
  6. Polar bear's lifespan
    24-28yrs
  7. Polar bears mainly eat ______
    Fat (and lots of pollutants are stored in fat)
  8. Approximate decrease of arctic sea ice extent per decade?
    ~10.3% (season?)
  9. Estimated _____ decrease in polar bear populations predicted in the next 40yrs
    66%
  10. Minimum weight for female polar bears to successfully den (have cubs)?
    Just under 200kg
  11. Polychlorinated Biphenyls
    • 209 congers (types)
    • Vary by placement and number of chlorine atoms
    • Vary in toxicity and persistance
  12. Endocrine disrupting compounds
    • Similar structure to thyroid hormone (both have O-H branch)
    • When absorbed by body, body thinks there is too much thyroxine (example), so signals the regular to stop producing thyroxine production which can lead to growth problems
  13. Risk Assessment
    Identification and quantification of the risk resulting from use or occurrence of a chemical, taking into account possible harmful effects on individual people or society when using the amount and manner proposed and all possible routes of exposure
  14. Acute scenarios of toxicity testing
    short-term tests at high concentrations
  15. chronic scenarios of toxicity testing
    long-term tests at low concentrations
  16. LC50
    lowest concentration at which 50% of a population dies
  17. LD50
    lowest dose at which 50% of the population dies
  18. lowest observed effect concentration
    lowest tested concentration that shows a statistically significant difference from the unexposed control group
  19. No observed effect concentration
    • NOEC
    • highest tested concentration not showing a statistically significant difference from the unexposed control group
  20. PNEC
    predicted no effect concentration
  21. Critical load
    highest total input rate of a contaminant below which harmful effects on human health + ecosystem structure and function will not occur at site of interest from a long-term perspective
  22. Daily tolerable intake
    amount of a contaminant that scientists have estimated is safe for humans to take in every day for an entire lifetime
  23. Eutrophication
    Process of nutrient enrichment, increased production of organic matter, and subsequent ecosystem degradation
  24. Nitrogen: limiting nutrient in ________ ecosystems
    terrestrial
  25. Phosphorous: limiting nutrient in ________ ecosystems
    aquatic
  26. Mineralization
    organic form -> mineral form (decomposition)
  27. How humans fix nitrogen to make fertilizer?
    Haber-Bosch Process
  28. Requirements for photosynthesis
    • Light
    • Nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorous)
    • Water
    • CO2
  29. Liebig's law of the minimum
    States yield is proportional to the amount of the most limiting nutrient
  30. Heterocysts
    • In cyanobacteria, during times of low environmental nitrogen, one cell out of every 10 will turn into a heterocyst
    • Supply neighboring cells with fixed nitrogen in return for the products of photosynthesis
  31. Types of cyanotoxin toxicities:
    neurotoxicity, hepatotoxicity (liver), cytotoxicity (blood), dermatotoxicity (skin)
  32. Hypoxia
    oxygen depletion, reduced concentration of dissolved oxygen in a water body leading to stress and death in aquatic organisms
  33. Production of sulfuric acid
    sulfur (S) in coal and oil -> Sulfur dioxide (SO2) -> Sulfur trioxide (SO3) -> sulfuric acid (H2SO4)
  34. Production of nitric acid
    nitrogen (N) from car engines, industrial plants -> nitric oxide (NO) -> nitrogen dioxide (NO2) ->nitric oxide (NO) and nitric acid (HNO3)
  35. Sulfur dioxide and nitric oxide are _______ while sulfuric acid and nitric acid are ________
    primary pollutants, secondary pollutants
  36. DOC
    Dissolved organic carbon, byproduct of bacteria breaking down organic matter bits from landscape

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