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What is Multiculturism?
Accepting a wide range of groups without grading them as better or worse than one another.
What are the Perspectives of MultiCulturalism?
- 1. Universal Perspective
- 2. Ubiquitous Perspective
- 3. Traditional Perspective
- 4. Race Based perspective
- 5. Pan National Perspective
What is Universal Perspective?
- Counseling should transcend race and focus on similarities.
- 1. Soft Touch, Interaction
- 2. Death
What is the Ubiquitous Perspective?
Assumes all differences are equal and considered a culture
What is the Traditional Perspective?
- Assumes "traditional" differences. Shared value systems, traditions, rituals, common language
- But: Ignore SES and sexual orientation
What is Raced Based Perspective?
Assumes Race is Primary
What is the Pan National Perspective?
- Assumes a global perspective; in order to understand the culture you must study group prior to oppression.
- African Americans and Native Americans
What is the Colorblind Perspective?
- Everyone is an American. Seeing race is Racist.
- Assumes Dominant culture norms and societal norms.
Mark of Oppression
Book written in 1957 by Lionel Ovesey. Viewed all racial groups as permanently scarred. Failed to recognize that difficulties were not permanent; that individuals respond differently to oppression and the strengths of a particular culture
Genetic Deficiency (1950's)
Racial Minorities were inferior through observations and "scientific" studies. Eventually discredited for lack of science to support racial catergories
Beginning of the Multicultural Movement
- Began with Wrenn's 1962 book Culturally encapsulated. People were limited by their environment
- Under-utilization of services, Premature Termination, Less preferred Diagnosis and Less preferred Treatments
Infusion of Culture
previously didnt include culture in diagnosis, built stereotypes for non-dominant cultures.
What were the 3 values of Native Americans
- 1. Symbiotic relationship with nature
- 2. Collectivistic- Tribe > Individual
- 3. Spirituality in everything
3 values of Latinos
- 1. Importance of Extended Family
- 2. Catholicism
- 3. Present time oriented
3 values of African Americans
- 1. Deep Structural belief in symbiotic image and rhythm
- 2. Extended Family
- 3. Spirituality
3 values of Asian Americans
- 1. Emotional restraint
- 2. Hierarchy - Men
- 3. Education and Achievement