Test 2: Ch.7
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How are human character and social institutions viewed and who viewed them this way?
"survival of the fittest" by Herbert Spencer
What is Synthetic philosophy?
the idea that knowledge and experience can be explained in terms of evolutionary principles (developed by Herbert Spencer)
According to William James, how is psychology described?
"An elaboration of the obvious"
How is someone supposedly able to treat themselves of mental illness?
What is the goal of psychology?
to study living people as they adapt to their environment
What is the function of consciousness?
a guide for the survival of a species
What did James believe about conscious experiences?
they are not groups or collections of elements
What is the stream of consciousness?
the idea that consciousness is a continuous flowing process and that any attempt to divide it into temporally distinct phases/elements can only distort it
What is conscious choice?
when we encounter a new problem and need to choose a new way of coping, consciousness comes into play
What is Habit?
repetitive or habitual actions become easier to perform and require less conscious attention and become involuntary and nonconscious
Which two methods did James use the comparative method to supplement?
Introspection and Experimental methods
What is pragmatism?
the doctrine that the validity of ideas is measured by their practical consequences ("anything is true if it works")
What does the 3 piece self include?
Material, social, and spiritual self
What is the variability hypothesis?
males showed a wider range of development of physical characteristics and abilities than females
How is James's theory of emotion different from the current thinking of emotion?
it is reversed to where James believes the physical response comes before the appearance of the emotion
How did Helen Wooley's research on the functional inequality of women compare to Leta Hollingworth's research on the variability hypothesis?
They both showed no sex differences in emotional functioning and slight differences in intellectual abilities
What is John Dewey's conclusion of the proper subject matter of psychology?
the study of the total organism as it functions in its environment
What does functionalism try to answer?
why mental processes exist and how they aid survival
Test 2: Ch.7
How functionalism was developed and founded