WHAP 12 Review
Card Set Information
WHAP 12 Review
WHAP Chapter 12 review
Period of political disorder and chaotic warfare following Qin-Han era?
Era of Division, Period of the Six Dynasties
Dynasty that ended the period of political chaos after fall of Quin-Han?
Characteristics of period after the fall of the Han?
Ruled by non-Chinese Buddhism eclipsed Confucianism
Why - rapid revival of empire under Tang?
Preservation of Confucian traditions
Who - created Sui dynasty?
Wendi, prominent north Chinese noble family member (589)
Why - reunification of Chinese under first Sui emperor possible?
Support of nomadic warrior elite
Creation of granaries - why important?
Reserve food supply, ward of famine, hold down prices
Primary reform enacted during reign of first Sui emperor?
Lowering taxes and establish granaries
Role of Confucian scholar gentry?
Help administer China, loyal, well-educated officials to govern
Downfall of Sui dynasty - why?
Excessive military expenses and grandiose building projects
Duke of Tang, minister of Yangdi, founder of Tang dynasty
Extent of the Tang empire?
300 years, far larger than early Han, Afghanistan, Tibet, Vietnam, Manchuria
Attitude of Tang emperors toward Confucian scholar gentry?
Support revival at expense of aristocracy
Ministry of Rites?
Responsible for administration of Confucian examination system
Title for those who passed most difficult exams on all Chinese literature
How did one enter Chinese bureaucracy?
Examination system, birth still important
Elite class of China - attracted to what variant of Buddhism?
Chan (Zen) stressed meditation and appreciation of natural, artistic beauty
Pure Land Buddhism?
Stress salvation popular in masses
Who attempted to have Buddhism recognized as a state religion?
What event - most damaging to Buddhism's popularity?
Campaign of Confucianists to convince Tang rulers of Buddhism posed economic challenge
When - open persecution of Buddhism?
Under Emperor Wuzong (841 - 847)
Results - imperial attempt to suppress Buddhism?
Survived in reduced state w/o much political influence
Impact on Confucianism of Tang repression of Buddhists?
Emerge as central ideology
Women who gained influence and power during later years of Tang?
Empress Wu, Empress Wei, Yang Guifei
Problems during the last years of the Tang dynasty?
Revolts, political divisions, no match, take control of north allies, become independent rulers, worsening economy
Founder of Song dynasty?
Zhao Kuangyin (Taizu), a general
Invading group caused fight of Song from northern China, founders of Qin, succeeded Liao
Compare Song and Tang empires?
Song never matched Tang in political, military, or domain
Position of scholar gentry under Song?
Continued its ascent over its aristocratic and Buddhist rivals
Most prominent of neo-Confucicians during Song, apply philosophical principles to life
Song prime minister 1070s - 1080s attempted to introduce reforms based on Legalist schools
Impact of development of neo-Confucian schools of thought?
less receptive outside ideas, stifled innovation and critical thinking, reinforced class, age and gender distinctions
Reforms introduced by Wang Anshi?
Cheap loans, irrigation projects, taxed landlords/scholarly, replace army with mercenary forces, and change education/examination system
Causes - flight of Song dynasty from northern China?
Yangdi, joined Yellow River region to Yangtze basin p. 275
Economic developments during period of commercial expansion (during Tang and Song dynasties)?
Increase amount of cultivation/production land, commercial contracts, credit system
Urbanization in China during Tang-Song era?
Capital of later Song, international commerce
Agricultural policies of the Sui and Tang emperors?
Broke up large landed estates and gave land to the peasants
Chinese landscape painting?
Food binding - why?
Reduce size, produce pain, restricted movement, confine women to house
Technological innovation of Tang-Song?
Gun powder, abacus, porcelain, complex bridges, marinetime tools, junk, (not paper)
What intellectual school responsible for production of most literary and artistic works during Tang-Song era?
Scholar gentry elite
Group responsible for the falll of the southern Song dynasty - 1279?
Mangols under Kubilai Khan
Primary difference between marriages of the upper and lower classes in Tang-Song China?
Status of women in Tang-Song era?
Improved under Tang, last rights, under Song
11th century artisan, invented movable type
Outstanding poet of the Tang era?
Li Bo, blend image of mudane world with philosophical
Interest of Confucian intellectuals in nature - most apparent in production of?