Science Chapter 10

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Science Chapter 10
2015-01-23 14:54:17

Chapter 10 glossary terms
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  1. Electricity
    A form of energy to that results from the interaction of charged particles, such as electrons or protons circuit turning on a light
  2. Static charge (static electricity)
    An electric charge that tends to stay on the surface of an object, rather than flowing away quickly

    • -caused by friction
    • -static means stationary
  3. Charging by friction
    A process in which objects made from different materials rub against eachother, producing a net static charge on each object

    e.g. Rubbing a balloon on your hair accumulates static charge
  4. Electrostatic series
    a list of materials that have been arranged according to their ability to hold on to electrons

    • glass
    • human hair
    • nylon
    • wool
    • fur
    • silk
    • cotton
    • lucite
    • Rubber balloon
    • polyester
    • foam
    • grocery bags (low density polyethylene)
    • ebonite
  5. Insulator
    A material in which electrons connot move easily from one atom to another

    e.g. Rubber, plastic, cloth
  6. Conductor
    A material in which electrons can move easily between atoms

    e.g. Copper, gold
  7. Semiconductor
    A material in which electrons can move fairly well between atoms

    e.g. Silicon
  8. Ground
    An object that can supply a very large number of electrons to, or can remove a very large number of electrons from, a charged object, thus neutralizing that object

    large insulated wire running into the ground
  9. Electroscope
    A device for detecting the presence of an electric charge

    e.g. Metal leaf electroscope, pith ball electroscope
  10. Charging by contact
    Generating a net charge on a neutral object by touching it with a charged object

    the object being charged will gain the same charge as the object charging, and the object charging will stay the same
  11. Law of electric charges
    Laws that describe how two objects interact  electrically when one or both are charged

    • - like charges repell
    • - different charges attract
    • - charged and neutral attract
  12. Electric field
    A property of space around a charged object, where the effect of its charge can be felt by others

    • - negative pulls
    • - positive pushes
  13. Induced charge separation
    The movement of electrons in a substance, caused by the electric field of a nearby charged object that is not in direct contact with the substance

    e.g. How lightning forms
  14. Ion
    A positively or negatively charged atom or group of atoms
  15. Lightning rod
    a metal sphere or point that is attached to the highest part of a building and is connected to ground

    tall building have these so that the building does not get damaged
  16. Electrostatic precipitator
    A type of cleaner that removes unwanted particles and liquid droplets from a flow of gas

    used in smokestacks to clean the emmisions
  17. Van de graaf generator
    a device that accumulates very large charges

    - large metal sphere on a metal rod, band inside  rubs against a comb and accumulates static charge
  18. Radiation dosimeter
    a small device that detects and measures exposure to radiation

    people who work in places exposed to radiation wear these to know if they are in danger