SCAT SWE Questions

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Author:
EricRM2011
ID:
285434
Filename:
SCAT SWE Questions
Updated:
2014-10-16 00:35:19
Tags:
Sediment Oil USCG MST SWE
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Description:
SCAT training questions for the Coast Guard SWE
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  1. Sediment Types
    R, Bedrock
    The exposed part of a subsurface rock formation
  2. Sediment Types
    B, Boulder
    Rocks Greater then 256mm in diameter (25.6cm)
  3. Sediment Types
    C, Cobble
    64mm to 256mm (6.4cm to 25.6 cm)
  4. Sediment Types
    P, Pebble
    4mm-64mm  (.4cm to 6.4 cm)
  5. Sediment Types
    G, Granual
    2mm-4mm (.2cm-.4cm)
  6. Sediment Types
    S, Sand
    .06mm to 2mm (.006cm to .2cm)
  7. Sediment Types
    M, Mud
    Silt and Clay less than .06mm
  8. Sediment Types
    RR, Rip Rap
    Man made permeable rubble
  9. Oil Distribution
    C, Continuous
    91%-100%
  10. Oil Distribution
    B, Broken
    51%-90%
  11. Oil Distribution
    P, Patchy
    11%-50%
  12. Oil Distribution
    S, Sporadic
    1%-10%
  13. Oil Distribution
    T, Trace
    Less than 1%
  14. Suface Oiling Description-Thickness
    PO, Pooled Oil
    TO, Thick Oil
    Fresh oil or mousse greater than 1cm thick.
  15. Suface Oiling Description-Thickness
    CV, Covered
    Oil or mousse between .1cm thick to less than 1cm thick
  16. Suface Oiling Description-Thickness
    CT, Coat
    Visible oil less than .1cm thick which can be scraped off with the finger nail
  17. Suface Oiling Description-Thickness
    ST, Stain
    Visible oil which cannot be scraped off with the fingernail
  18. Suface Oiling Description-Thickness
    FL, Film
    Transparent or iridescent sheen or oily film.
  19. Surface Oil Descriptions- Type
    FR, Fresh oil
    Unweathered, liquid oil
  20. Surface Oil Descriptions- Type
    MS, Mousse
    Emulsified Oil
  21. Surface Oil Descriptions- Type 
    TB, Tar Balls
    discrete accumulation of oil less than 10cm in diameter.
  22. Surface Oil Descriptions- Type
    PT,  Patties
    Discrete accumulations of oil greater than 10cm in diameter
  23. Surface Oil Descriptions- Type
    TC, Tar
    Highly weathered oil of nearly solid consistency
  24. Surface Oil Descriptions- Type
    SR, Surface oil Residue
    Non Cohesive heavily oiled surface sediments characterized as soft, insipient (initial stage) asphalt pavements.
  25. Surface Oil Descriptions- Type
    AP, Asphalt Pavements
    Cohesive heavily oiled surface sediments
  26. Subsurface Oil Descriptions
    SAP, Subsurface Asphalt Pavements
    Buried Layer of hardend oil
  27. Subsurface Oil Descriptions
    OP, oil filled pores
    Pore spaces are completely filled with oil to the extent that oil flows out when disturbed. (May also consist of weathered oil such as a buried lens of asphalt oil.)
  28. Subsurface Oil Descriptions
    PP, Partially filled pores
    Pore spaces partially filled with oil to the extent that oil does not flow out when disturbed.
  29. Subsurface Oil Descriptions
    OR, Oil residue
    Sediments are visibly oiled with black/brown coats or covered on the clasts (individual sediment particles) but little or no residue in pore spaces. Modifiers are Heavy HOR , Moderate MOR, and Light LOR.
  30. Subsurface Oil Descriptions
    OF, Oil Film
    Sediments are lightly oiled with a film or stain on the clasts.
  31. Shoreline Types:Description 
    1A. Exposed Rocky shores
    • Steep slope 30 degrees or greater with Narrow width.
    • Little to no sediment accumulation.
    • Strong Vertical zoning of intertidal communities (crustaceans and stuff).
  32. Shoreline Types:Description
    1.B Exposed man-made structures
    • Solid man made structures.
    • made mostly out of wood, metal or concrete.
    • built to protect shore from erosion thus are exposed to natural removal process.
    • often no exposed substrate at low tide.
    • attached plants and animals are sparse to common.
  33. Shoreline Types:Description
    2.A Exposed wave cut platforms in bed rock
    • variable width and gentle slope.
    • surface of platform is irregular tidal pools common.
    • maybe backed be steep scarp or low buff.
    • rich accumulation of plant life and animals.
    • gravel maybe found in pools
    • sand to boulder size sediments and base of scarp.
  34. Shoreline Types:Description
    2.B Exposed Scarp and steep slopes in clay
    • exposed in wetlands and where river tributaries cut steep banks in marsh.
    • Scarp heights are  0.3 to 1m consist usually of heavily rooted peaty soil.
    • Fronted by fine to medium grained sand or shell fragments.
    • little habitation due to erosion.
    • Typically backed by wetland vegetation.
  35. Shoreline Types:Description
    3.A Fine to medium grained sand beaches
    • Flat to moderate slope. 
    • relatively hard packed.
    • possible heavy accumulation of wrack(floating plant life).
    • Utilized by birds and sea turtles for nesting.
  36. Shoreline Types:Description
    3.B Scarps and steep slopes in sand
    • Occurs where sandy  bluffs are undercut by waves, current, or slump.
    • Moderate erosion can allow for a front of narrow beaches.
    • Log build up from undercut trees from the back.
    • low biological utilization from birds and infauna.
  37. Shoreline Types:Description
    4. Coarse grained sand beaches
    • Moderate sloping of variable width with soft sediment.
    • low trafficability.
    • lower species density and diversity than fine grain sand.
  38. Shoreline Types:Description
    5. Mixed sand and gravel
    • zones maybe pure sand, gravel, or cobble.
    • seasons can cause large changes in sediment distribution patterns because storms may transport sediment offshore.
    • exposed beaches tend to have low densities of life.
  39. Shoreline Types:Description
    6.A Gravel beaches
    • Sediment sizes range from pebbles to boulders.
    • can be very steep.
    • berms made by waves on upper beach.
    • Biota restricted to lower parts of beach.
    • Sheltered areas can support rich biota.
  40. Shoreline Types:Description
    6.B Rip Rap
    • Composed of cobble to boulder size rocks, concrete, etc...
    • Used as revetment and groins for shoreline protection and breakwaters and jetties around inlets and marinas.
    • Biota is more common in lower intertidal zone than upper intertidal zone.
  41. Shoreline Types:Description
    7. Exposed Tidal Flats
    • Broad flat intertidal areas composed mostly of sand, and minor amounts of gravel, shells, and mud.
    • presence of sand indicates strong tidal currents.
    • mostly associated with other shoreline types on the land side of  the flat. 
    • may exist as separate shoals.
    • Commonly associated with tidal inlets.
  42. Shoreline Types:Description
    8.A Sheltered Rocky Shores
    • Rocky substrate that varies widely in permeability.
    • concerns are ones that have a semi-permeable veneer of angular rubble over lying the bedrock.
    • bedrock is dominate substrate.
    • Lower tidal elevations may present higher biota.
  43. Shoreline Types:Description
    8.B Sheltered solid man-made structures.
    • Structures made of concrete, wood, or metal of all types. 
    • usually no exposed shore at low tide.
    • maybe dense attachments of aquatic life.
  44. Shoreline Types:Description
    9.A Sheltered Tidal Flats
    • Composed of mud and minor amounts of sand and shell.
    • present in calm water habitats sheltered from major wave action and usually backed by marsh areas.
    • soft sediment can't support even light foot traffic in most areas.
    • Worms, bivalves, and other invertebrate.
    • heavily utilized by birds for feeding.
  45. Shoreline Types:Description
    9.B Sheltered Vegetated Low Banks
    • Low banks with either grasses or trees and roots exposed to the water.
    • Flooded occasionally by high water.
  46. Shoreline Types:Description
    10.A Salt and brackish water marshes.
    • intertidal wetlands that consist of emergent, herbaceous vegetation.
    • Width varies widely.
    • Sediments of rich organic mud, except on margins of islands or rivers where sand is abundant. 
    • exposed areas are located along bays with high fetches, or heavily trafficked waterways.
    • Sheltered areas are not exposed to high wave or wake action.
    • lots of flora and fauna.
  47. Shoreline Types:Description
    10.B Fresh Water Marshes
    • grassy wetlands composed of emergent herbaceous vegetation.
    • occur upstream from brackish vegetation in the upper estuary and along creeks and rivers.
    • Those along major channels are exposed to large currents and boat wakes. Smaller channels tend to be sheltered.
    • Resident flora and fauna are abundant.
  48. Shoreline Types:Description
    10.C Swamps
    • consist of shrubs and hardwood forest wetlands.
    • vegetation is taller on average than 6m.
    • Sediment tend to be silty clay with large amounts of organic debris.
    • seasonally flood with low areas being permanently flooded.
    • abundant flora and fauna.
  49. Shoreline Types:Description
    10.D Mangroves (Scrubs-shrub wetlands)
    • Roots and trunks are typically intertidal with the lower leaves flooded at high tides.
    • width can vary from one tree to many kilometers.
    • heavy wrack accumulation.
    • highly productive, and can serve as nursery habitats, and supports a large diversity of plant and animal life.

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