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colon rectal test
- Rectal Exam (DRE): start at age 50 years if no identifiable risk factors.
- Annually to monitor for rectal cancer in men and women.
- ØFecal Immunochemical Test (FIT):
- ØFecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT):
- ØProctosigmoidoscopy: done if DRE, FIT or FOBT are positive.
- ØColonoscopy: same as above plus will be done if change in bowel pattern.
- ØDouble contrast barium enema:
- ØCT colonography(virtual colonoscopy): done every 5-10 years if warranted
- Uses body’s chemistry to show “hot” &
- “cold” spots. Needs increased fluids after to flush system. Radioactive tracer can be injected, given orally or inhaled.
Positive-emission tomography (PET)
- Injection or oral intake of a type of
- radioactive sugar. Shows high metabolic activity. Combination of CT and Nuclear
Radioactive dye injected in between toes on each foot. After: inc. fluids, √temp q4hrs x 48hrs, elevate legs, √ bleeding, √CMS
Antigen Skin Test
- ◦Antigen (dinitrochlorobenzene
- (DNCB)) applied locally to skin.
- ◦After 10-14 days check for reaction.
- ◦If positive reaction (induration & inflammation) person has good immune
- ◦Also used to monitor client receiving immunotherapy to determine response to
increase I pregnant females, tumor marker increased testicular liver ovarian
Inc. in prostatic cancer
- §Generally presents as regional
- enlargement of a single group of peripheral lymph nodes
- §Involves contiguous nodes
- §Rarely extranodal
- §Rare type of cancer
- §Nodal involvement more widely
§Involves noncontiguous nodes
§Extranodal involvement is frequent
- §5th most
- common diagnosed cancer in the US
Clinical Manifestations of HD
- Enlarged painless unicentric (initiates
- in a single node) lymph node followed by progressive enlargement of other
Pruritis (d/t increased eosinophiles)
Low back pain
- Unexplained weight loss (›10% of body
- weight) (B)
Nodal pain with ETOH ingestion
Drenching night sweats (B)
- (B) symptoms have prognostic
- implications. These are found in ~40% of patients and are more common in
- advanced disease
Clinical Manifestations of NHL
- Lymphadenopathy most common but can wax
- and wane
33% have (B) symptoms
- Depending on where tumors are located can
- have: hepatosplenomegaly, respiratory distress, renal dysfunction, and gastric
- Typically very little clinical
- manifestations until disease has advanced to a later stage (III or IV)
BRM’s (Biological Response Modifiers)
- natural substances produced by lymphocytes and monocytes
- Groups of proteins naturally produced by the body to respond to viral
- Could be specific or nonspecific
•Most common childhood form
- •Survival rates:85% in children and
- 40% in adults
- •At risk for CNS involvement
- •Treated with combination of Chemo agents and/or BMT
•Responds better to treatment
•Anemia common and severe
- resistant to treatment
- common in adults over 65 yrs.
- •Childhood survival rate approx. 50%, less
- in adults.
•Treated with chemo and/or BMT.
•Anemia common and severe
- remain asymptomatic for years
- S/S fatigue and hepatosplenomegaly
- response if treated early
•First S/S is change in CBC (found by chance)
•Found to have DNA translocation
•Lymphadenopathy commonly found
•Anemia in 50%, mild
non small cell lung cancer
- Squamous Cell:
- •20-30% of non-small cell
- •Outer region of lung
- •Peripheral masses and nodules
- •40% of non-small cell
- Large cell undifferentiated
- •15% of non-small cell
- •Most aggressive form of non-small cell
- •Any part of lung including bronchoalveolar
Small Cell Lung Cancer
- in bronchi, spreads to bronchial by infiltration
- •Has usually metastasized by time of
•Spreads widely through body
- •Fastest growing & poorest prognosis
- of all lung cancer
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