Exam 5

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efrain12
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285465
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Exam 5
Updated:
2014-10-11 00:03:51
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foods
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Meats
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  1. How are meats generally defined as?
    • Muscle of animals
    • *but also include organs & glands
  2. What are the main sources of meat in north American & euro (3)
    -beef cattle

    -sheep

    -swine
  3. What are the main sources of meat) middle eadst
    camel
  4. What are the main sources of meat) peru
    llama
  5. What are the main sources of meat) australia
    kangaroo
  6. What are the main sources of meat) far east
    dog
  7. Types of meat) how are beef classified as?
    Age & gender
  8. Types of meat) what are steers? (2)
    -males

    -they are castrated while young so they will giant weight quickly
  9. Types of meat) what are bulls used for? (2)
    -breeding

    -then their tough meat is later used for processed food
  10. Types of meat) beef cattle: characteristic of veal meat (2)
    • -comes from young calves
    • (3 weeks to 3 months old)

    -male or female
  11. Types of meat) beef cattle: what are veals fed? (2)
    A milk based or formula diet
  12. Types of meat) beef cattle: characteristic of veal meat (3)
    -milky flavor

    -pale color

    -tender texture
  13. Types of meat) beef cattle: why have some people stop selling veal?
    Inhumane treatment
  14. Types of meat) beef cattle: what is difference between restricted movement veal and free range veal?
    The meat is less tender on a free range veal
  15. Types of meat) lamb & mutton: lamb
    Comes from sheep less than 14 months old
  16. Types of meat) lamb & mutton: mutton (3)
    -comes from meat more than 14 months old

    -darker tougher meat

    -stronger flavor
  17. Types of meat) Pork: where does this meat come from?
    Meat comes from young swine
  18. Types of meat) Pork: around what age are they slaughtered?
    7-12 months
  19. Types of meat) Pig: around when are they slaughtered?
    Less than 4 months
  20. Types of meat) hogs: around when are these slaughtered?
    Greater than 4 months
  21. What are meats composed of? (5)
    -water

    -muscle

    -connective tissue

    -adipose tissue

    • -bone
    • **proportions of each varies by anatomy
  22. Structure of meat) muscles are made up of a collection of individual muscle cells, what are they called?
    Muscle fibers
  23. Structure of meat) each muscle fiber is surrounded by an outer membrane called...
    sarcolemma
  24. Structure of meat) each muscle fiber is filled with cell fluid called...
    sarcoplasm
  25. Structure of meat) Fibrils play important role in...(2)
    Contraction & relaxation
  26. Structure of meat) each muscle fibril is separated into segments called...
    sarcomeres
  27. Structure of meat) which 2 proteins do sarcomeres contain?
    • actin
    • *thin

    • -myosin
    • *thick
  28. Structure of meat) when does contraction occur? (2)
    -When sarcomeres shorten

    -when thin & thick slide past each other
  29. Structure of meat) what protein is created when sarcomeres shorten?
    actinomyosin
  30. Structure of meat) what is used for energy in muscle contraction
    ATP
  31. structure of connective tissue) how do ligaments and tendons work?
    Act as glue that holds muscles together
  32. structure of connective tissue) what are these composed off? (2)_
    -proteins & mucopolysaccharides
  33. structure of connective tissue) what is the abundant protein in them?
    collagen
  34. Effect of age on tenderness) what increases with age?
    Collagen concetration-
  35. Effect of age on tenderness) how should meat from older animals be cooked? And why?
    Slow, moist heating at low temps bc converts fought tissue into softer gelatin
  36. Effect of elastic on tenderness) how does elastin affect tenderness?
    It is a yellowish, rubbery with elastic qualities

    ***this does not soften with cooking so should be removed
  37. Adipose tissue structure) what is it called on the outside of meat?
    Cover fat
  38. Adipose tissue structure) what is function of fat? (2)
    -insulation under skin

    -padding for sensitive organs
  39. Adipose tissue structure) function of cover fat?
    -helps meat retain mositure

    *often removed just before cooking
  40. Adipose tissue structure) where is intramuscular fat or marbling found?
    • Fat found within muscles
    • *little white streaks or drops
  41. Adipose tissue structure) 3 ways fat color & texture affected by?
    -age

    -diet

    -species
  42. What is bone marrow?
    Soft, fatty material in center of bones
  43. 2 types of marrow
    -red and yellow
  44. 3 facts about antibiotics
    -shield animal from diseases

    -promote growth

    -possible harmful effect on medical antibiotics for humans
  45. Are hormones allowed in all countries?
    no
  46. In which 2 animals does USDA allow hormones in?
    Cattle & sheep
  47. In which 2 animals does USDA not allow hormones in?
    Swine & poultry
  48. Pigments) where does color come from primarily?> (2)
    From myoglobin and to a lesser degree hemoglobin
  49. Higher myoglobin concentrations =
    More red color
  50. Pigments) what does myoglobin do?
    Revives oxygen from blood & stores it in muscles
  51. Pigments) what does hemoglobin do?
    Transports oxygen throughout the body
  52. Pigments) where is hemoglobin usually found in?
    bloodstream
  53. Pigments) how does exposure to oxygen affect color in myoglobin?
    Myoglobin in meat is a purplish red but when exposed to Oxygen it turns bright red
  54. Pigments) effects of heat on color: what effect does it have on raw meat?
    Converts raw meat to bright red initially
  55. Pigments) effects of heat on color: how does meat become well done, grayish brown?
    It denatures pigment containing proteins
  56. Pigments) effects of heat on color: what color can storing meat take on when stored for too long/
    -yellow, green, or faded
  57. Nitrogen compounds) MEat and extractives
    Meat derives some of its flavor from extractive
  58. Nitrogen compounds is synonymous to...
    extractives
  59. What are extractive?
    Flavor compounds consisting of nonprotein, nitrogen substances that are the end products of protein metabolism
  60. Nitrogen compounds) what are the most common extractive? (4)
    -creatine

    -creatinine

    -urea

    -uric acid
  61. Nitrogen compounds) why are older meats more flavorful?
    They contain more connective tissue & extractives
  62. Inspection) what did the federal meat inspection act?
    Made inspection of meat crossing state lines or entering the US mandatory
  63. Inspection) by who is the inspections done?
    By USDA food safety & inspection service
  64. Inspection) by who are inspections conducted by? (2)
    -licensed veterinarians

    -trained, supervise inspectors
  65. Inspection) what do inspectors do? (5)
    -observe live animals & animal carcasses & meat at various processing stages

    -monitor temp and additives

    -review packaging materials &  labels

    -determine employee & facility hygiene

    -check imported meat

    -
  66. Inspection) meat passing inspection are marked with...
    Inspection stamp
  67. Grading ) is grading voluntary or involuntary?
    voluntary
  68. Grading ) when are they done?
    When meat processors contract with USDA
  69. Grading )what type of cut does it use?
    Cut between 12th & 13th rib that exposes the muscle
  70. Grading ) how is grading based on? (5)
    -color

    -grain

    -surface

    -texture

    -fat distribution
  71. Grading ) what are the top 3 USDA quality grades fop beef?
    -USDA prime

    -USDA choice

    -USDA select
  72. Grading )USDA prime characteristic
    -very tender, juicy, flavorful
  73. Grading ) which of the top 3 grading have the highest marbling>?
    USDA prime
  74. Grading ) where is uSDA prime usually sold to? (2)
    -finer restaurants and some meat stores
  75. Grading ) which grade is usually found in retail stores?
    USDA choice
  76. Grading ) which grade has the least marbling of the top 3?
    USDA select
  77. Grading ) which of the top 3 grades is the cheapest?
    USDA select
  78. Grading ) 3 characteristics of top cuts
    -optimum color

    -fine grained, smooth surfaces

    -velvety, silky, satiny to the touch
  79. Grading ) how is the fat look like in top cuts? (3)
    -evenly distributed

    • -white/creamy white
    • *not yellow

    • -firm
    • *not brittle or runny
  80. What is yield grade?
    Lean meat on carcass in proportion to fat, bone, other inedible parts

    **from pic, thicker the inedible the higher the number
  81. Natural tenderizing) determined by: cut of meat
    location where meat cut comes from
  82. Natural tenderizing) determined by: age of animal at slaughter
    Top cuts usually come from younger animals
  83. Natural tenderizing) determined by: animals hereditary
    Determined by breeding and genetics
  84. Natural tenderizing) determined by: diet
    grain fed yield more flavor & tender
  85. Natural tenderizing) determined by: meats marbling
    More marbling = more tenderness
  86. Natural tenderizing) determined by: aging
    Improves juiciness, tenderness, flavor, color, & browning ability
  87. What is rigor mortis?
    Temporary stiff state after death when muscles contrct
  88. Natural tenderizing) why does the pH change during rigor mortis?
    Glycogen converts to lactic acid this lowers pH 7 to 5.8


    *cells use up the glycogen bc of absence in oxygen
  89. Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: why?
    Low pH caused by stress from fear, fasting, extreme temps, or exercising
  90. Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: why?
    Low PH caused by stress from fear, fasting, extreme temps, exercising
  91. Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: dark cutting beef
    Occurs when glycogen is depleted before death resulting in less lactic acid production during rigor mortis
  92. Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: what is PSE pork? (2)
    -pale, soft, exudative pork created by low pH

    -very dry cooked meat
  93. Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: what happens with cold shortening?
    -chilling too rapidly before rigor mortis which leads to tougher meat
  94. Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: green meat
    Cooking meat in rigor mortis state which leads to tough & tasteless meat
  95. Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; summary of this process
    Carcasses are hung for a few days to weeks to allow enzyme break down muscle tissue which improves texture & taste
  96. Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; dry aging
    Dehydration concentrates flavor
  97. Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; fast or wet aging
    Reduced aging time to 2 days
  98. Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; vacuum packed aging (2)
    Reduces weight loss & spoilage
  99. Artificial tenderizing) enzymes
    proteolytic enzymes break down proteins in muscle fibrils
  100. Artificial tenderizing) salts
    increase water retention capacity
  101. Artificial tenderizing) acids
    Marinades with acids or alcohol break down outside surface of meat
  102. Artificial tenderizing) mechanical tenderization
    Grinding, curbing, needling, pounding physically break down tissue
  103. Artificial tenderizing) which 2 is electrical stimulation used on?
    -beef cattle

    -sheep
  104. Artificial tenderizing) tenderness & electrical stimulation
    Tenderness increases via electrical current after slaughter & before rigor mortis
  105. Artificial tenderizing) how does electrical stimulation work?
    Current speeds up glycogen breakdown & enzyme activity
  106. Cuts of meat) what are the 2 major types of meat cuts?
    -wholesale

    -retail
  107. Cuts of meat) wholesale cuts:
    Large cuts
  108. Cuts of meat) what do wholesales cuts divided into?
    Retail cuts
  109. Cuts of meat) what are retail cuts?
    smaller cuts sold to consumer
  110. Look at slide 41 to look for physical descriptions of meat purchasing
  111. Cuts) what goes under variety of meats?
    -liver

    -sweetbreads

    -brain

    -kidneys

    -heart

    -tongue

    -tripe

    -oxtail
  112. Cuts) kosher meats
    Meat from cattle, sheep, goats slaughtered according to Jew diet laws
  113. Cuts) halal meats
    Meat sacrificed according to Muslim guidelines
  114. Cuts) halal meats: which meats are the exception ? (2)
    Pork & carnivorous animals with fangs
  115. Cuts) organic meats
    Derived from cattle fed only milk, grasses, and grains from birth to slaughter
  116. What are processed meats?
    Meat changed from its original fresh cut
  117. Processed meats ) processing methods: curing
    Addition of synthetic nitrates or nitrites, salt
  118. Processed meats ) processing methods: smoking
    Exposed to smoke of burning wood
  119. Processed meats ) processing methods: canning
    Processed through either pasteurization or sterilization
  120. Processed meats ) processing methods: drying
    Meat is cooked and dried
  121. Processed meats ) types of processed meats: ham
    cured pork
  122. Processed meats ) types of processed meats: bacon
    -cured & smoked from side of hog
  123. Processed meats ) types of processed meats: sausage
    Uncooked, cooked, & dry/semi dry
  124. Processed meats ) types of processed meats: how are lower fat processed meats produced? (3)
    -using leaner cuts of meat

    -adding more water

    • -adding more ingredients
    • *fiber, gums, starches, whey protein
  125. Processed meats ) mechanically deboned meat
    Meat collected from the bone after butchering which is contained by grinding remaining meat and bone
  126. Processed meats ) mechanically deboned meat: what does the meat contain>?
    Ground bone, marrow, & soft tissue
  127. Processed meats ) restructured meat
    Fabricated meat made from meat trimmings and lower grade carcasses
  128. Changes during heating) what optimizes tenderness & juiciness?
    Correct temperature and right amount of time
  129. Changes during heating) what is larding?
    Keeping lean meat moist by inserting bacon, salt pork, or other fat into slits in meat with needle
  130. Changes during heating) barding
    Tying thin sheets of fat or bacon over lean meat to keep moist
  131. Changes during heating) searing
    Cooking at very high initial temps to seal the pores which increases flavor and enhances browning
  132. Changes during heating) is blanching recommended?
    No, bc of loss of water soluble compoudns
  133. Changes during heating) flavor enhancements
    Flavor can be enhanced by basting and seasoning
  134. 4 ways to determine doneness
    -internal temps

    -time weight charts

    -color changes

    -touch
  135. What is carry over cooking?
    food continues to cook after removed from heat
  136. Carry over cooking) how is heat distributed
    From outer to inner portion of food
  137. Dry-heat preparation) roasting: what is this?
    Heating of moderate to large cuts in dry, hot heat oven air
  138. Dry-heat preparation) roasting: what temp range is recommended?
    300-350 F
  139. Dry-heat preparation) roasting: cooking time
    18-30 per 1lb of meat
  140. Dry-heat preparation) broiling & grilling: for what tyope of meat is this recommended fior?
    Smaller cuts of tender meat
  141. Dry-heat preparation) broiling & grilling: facts regarding this type (2)
    -high temps & short cooking time

    -cooking times based on cut thickness
  142. Dry-heat preparation) pan-broiling:
    Very thin cuts heated in a pan with no oil
  143. Dry-heat preparation) frying
    Best for tender, small cuts low in fat or breaded
  144. Moist heat preparation) what is this appropriate for?
    Less tender cuts that come from heavily exercised muscle & older beef
  145. Moist heat preparation) braising: what is this?
    Simmering in covered pan in small amount of liwuid
  146. Moist heat preparation) braising: what does it do
    ?
    Breaks down collagen & tenderizer meat
  147. Moist heat preparation) braising: simmering/stewing
    Simmered while completely submerged in liquid
  148. Moist heat preparation) steaming: when is it often used?
    For large cuts
  149. Moist heat preparation) steaming: how is this cooked?
    -pressure cooker, tightly covered pan, wrapped aluminum or plastic bag
  150. Moist heat preparation) steaming: how is doneness determined?
    By timing
  151. Moist heat preparation) steaming: heat time and temp
    Long heat time and relatively low temps
  152. Moist heat preparation) microwave
    Not recommended except for thawing & reheating
  153. Carving) what is it?
    Sliced meat across the grain
  154. Carving) grain is...
    Direction muscle fibers run
  155. Carving) slicing method...
    Affects tendernes
  156. Meat storage) what is ideal for growth of microorganisms
    High percent of water & protein are ideal for growth of microorganisms
  157. Meat storage) refrigeration times: fresh meat
    No longer than 3-5 days
  158. Meat storage) refrigeration times: ground & variety
    Cook within 1 to 2 days
  159. Meat storage) refrigeration times: cooked
    3 to 4 days
  160. Meat storage) controlled atmosphere packaging
    Extends life of fresh red meat from 2 to 28 days
  161. Meat storage) frozen: most cuts can be kept up to
    6-12 months
  162. Meat storage) frozen: ground beefs can be kept IP to
    3 months
  163. Meat storage) wrapping meat: retail meats in plastic wrap can be refrigerated in...
    Original wrap up to 2 days
  164. Meat storage) wrapping meat: if want to store beyond 2 days
    store wrapping removed and replaced with loosely wrapped plastic wrap, wax paper, aluminum foil
  165. Meat storage) frozen: store  meat tightly wrapped in what temp?
    Less than 0 F
  166. Nutrient content) protein
    7 grams per ounce
  167. Nutrient content) excellent source of,, (5)
    -b vitamins

    -iron

    zinc

    -copper

    -phosphorus
  168. Calorie control) 2 ways calories ae controlled by
    -limiting the serving size

    -consuming leaner meats
  169. Calorie control) serving size..
    limit to 5-6 oz per day
  170. Calorie control) what's the rule for beef and veal/lamb cuts? (2)
    Leanest cuts of beef come form loin or round

    Leanest for veal/lambs cuts from the loin or leg

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