Card Set Information
How are meats generally defined as?
Muscle of animals
*but also include organs & glands
What are the main sources of meat in north American & euro (3)
What are the main sources of meat) middle eadst
What are the main sources of meat) peru
What are the main sources of meat) australia
What are the main sources of meat) far east
Types of meat) how are beef classified as?
Age & gender
Types of meat) what are steers? (2)
-they are castrated while young so they will giant weight quickly
Types of meat) what are bulls used for? (2)
-then their tough meat is later used for processed food
Types of meat) beef cattle: characteristic of veal meat (2)
-comes from young calves
(3 weeks to 3 months old)
-male or female
Types of meat) beef cattle: what are veals fed? (2)
A milk based or formula diet
Types of meat) beef cattle: characteristic of veal meat (3)
Types of meat) beef cattle: why have some people stop selling veal?
Types of meat) beef cattle: what is difference between restricted movement veal and free range veal?
The meat is less tender on a free range veal
Types of meat) lamb & mutton: lamb
Comes from sheep less than 14 months old
Types of meat) lamb & mutton: mutton (3)
-comes from meat more than 14 months old
-darker tougher meat
Types of meat) Pork: where does this meat come from?
Meat comes from young swine
Types of meat) Pork: around what age are they slaughtered?
Types of meat) Pig: around when are they slaughtered?
Less than 4 months
Types of meat) hogs: around when are these slaughtered?
Greater than 4 months
What are meats composed of? (5)
**proportions of each varies by anatomy
Structure of meat) muscles are made up of a collection of individual muscle cells, what are they called?
Structure of meat) each muscle fiber is surrounded by an outer membrane called...
Structure of meat) each muscle fiber is filled with cell fluid called...
Structure of meat) Fibrils play important role in...(2)
Contraction & relaxation
Structure of meat) each muscle fibril is separated into segments called...
Structure of meat) which 2 proteins do sarcomeres contain?
Structure of meat) when does contraction occur? (2)
-When sarcomeres shorten
-when thin & thick slide past each other
Structure of meat) what protein is created when sarcomeres shorten?
Structure of meat) what is used for energy in muscle contraction
structure of connective tissue) how do ligaments and tendons work?
Act as glue that holds muscles together
structure of connective tissue) what are these composed off? (2)_
-proteins & mucopolysaccharides
structure of connective tissue) what is the abundant protein in them?
Effect of age on tenderness) what increases with age?
Effect of age on tenderness) how should meat from older animals be cooked? And why?
Slow, moist heating at low temps bc converts fought tissue into softer gelatin
Effect of elastic on tenderness) how does elastin affect tenderness?
It is a yellowish, rubbery with elastic qualities
***this does not soften with cooking so should be removed
Adipose tissue structure) what is it called on the outside of meat?
Adipose tissue structure) what is function of fat? (2)
-insulation under skin
-padding for sensitive organs
Adipose tissue structure) function of cover fat?
-helps meat retain mositure
*often removed just before cooking
Adipose tissue structure) where is intramuscular fat or marbling found?
Fat found within muscles
*little white streaks or drops
Adipose tissue structure) 3 ways fat color & texture affected by?
What is bone marrow?
Soft, fatty material in center of bones
2 types of marrow
-red and yellow
3 facts about antibiotics
-shield animal from diseases
-possible harmful effect on medical antibiotics for humans
Are hormones allowed in all countries?
In which 2 animals does USDA allow hormones in?
Cattle & sheep
In which 2 animals does USDA not allow hormones in?
Swine & poultry
Pigments) where does color come from primarily?> (2)
From myoglobin and to a lesser degree hemoglobin
Higher myoglobin concentrations =
More red color
Pigments) what does myoglobin do?
Revives oxygen from blood & stores it in muscles
Pigments) what does hemoglobin do?
Transports oxygen throughout the body
Pigments) where is hemoglobin usually found in?
Pigments) how does exposure to oxygen affect color in myoglobin?
Myoglobin in meat is a purplish red but when exposed to Oxygen it turns bright red
Pigments) effects of heat on color: what effect does it have on raw meat?
Converts raw meat to bright red initially
Pigments) effects of heat on color: how does meat become well done, grayish brown?
It denatures pigment containing proteins
Pigments) effects of heat on color: what color can storing meat take on when stored for too long/
-yellow, green, or faded
Nitrogen compounds) MEat and extractives
Meat derives some of its flavor from extractive
Nitrogen compounds is synonymous to...
What are extractive?
Flavor compounds consisting of nonprotein, nitrogen substances that are the end products of protein metabolism
Nitrogen compounds) what are the most common extractive? (4)
Nitrogen compounds) why are older meats more flavorful?
They contain more connective tissue & extractives
Inspection) what did the federal meat inspection act?
Made inspection of meat crossing state lines or entering the US mandatory
Inspection) by who is the inspections done?
By USDA food safety & inspection service
Inspection) by who are inspections conducted by? (2)
-trained, supervise inspectors
Inspection) what do inspectors do? (5)
-observe live animals & animal carcasses & meat at various processing stages
-monitor temp and additives
-review packaging materials & labels
-determine employee & facility hygiene
-check imported meat
Inspection) meat passing inspection are marked with...
Grading ) is grading voluntary or involuntary?
Grading ) when are they done?
When meat processors contract with USDA
Grading )what type of cut does it use?
Cut between 12th & 13th rib that exposes the muscle
Grading ) how is grading based on? (5)
Grading ) what are the top 3 USDA quality grades fop beef?
Grading )USDA prime characteristic
-very tender, juicy, flavorful
Grading ) which of the top 3 grading have the highest marbling>?
Grading ) where is uSDA prime usually sold to? (2)
-finer restaurants and some meat stores
Grading ) which grade is usually found in retail stores?
Grading ) which grade has the least marbling of the top 3?
Grading ) which of the top 3 grades is the cheapest?
Grading ) 3 characteristics of top cuts
-fine grained, smooth surfaces
-velvety, silky, satiny to the touch
Grading ) how is the fat look like in top cuts? (3)
*not brittle or runny
What is yield grade?
Lean meat on carcass in proportion to fat, bone, other inedible parts
**from pic, thicker the inedible the higher the number
Natural tenderizing) determined by: cut of meat
location where meat cut comes from
Natural tenderizing) determined by: age of animal at slaughter
Top cuts usually come from younger animals
Natural tenderizing) determined by: animals hereditary
Determined by breeding and genetics
Natural tenderizing) determined by: diet
grain fed yield more flavor & tender
Natural tenderizing) determined by: meats marbling
More marbling = more tenderness
Natural tenderizing) determined by: aging
Improves juiciness, tenderness, flavor, color, & browning ability
What is rigor mortis?
Temporary stiff state after death when muscles contrct
Natural tenderizing) why does the pH change during rigor mortis?
Glycogen converts to lactic acid this lowers pH 7 to 5.8
*cells use up the glycogen bc of absence in oxygen
Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: why?
Low pH caused by stress from fear, fasting, extreme temps, or exercising
Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: why?
Low PH caused by stress from fear, fasting, extreme temps, exercising
Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: dark cutting beef
Occurs when glycogen is depleted before death resulting in less lactic acid production during rigor mortis
Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: what is PSE pork? (2)
-pale, soft, exudative pork created by low pH
-very dry cooked meat
Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: what happens with cold shortening?
-chilling too rapidly before rigor mortis which leads to tougher meat
Natural tenderizing) improper handled meat lower meat quality: green meat
Cooking meat in rigor mortis state which leads to tough & tasteless meat
Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; summary of this process
Carcasses are hung for a few days to weeks to allow enzyme break down muscle tissue which improves texture & taste
Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; dry aging
Dehydration concentrates flavor
Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; fast or wet aging
Reduced aging time to 2 days
Natural tenderizing) aging ripening; vacuum packed aging (2)
Reduces weight loss & spoilage
Artificial tenderizing) enzymes
proteolytic enzymes break down proteins in muscle fibrils
Artificial tenderizing) salts
increase water retention capacity
Artificial tenderizing) acids
Marinades with acids or alcohol break down outside surface of meat
Artificial tenderizing) mechanical tenderization
Grinding, curbing, needling, pounding physically break down tissue
Artificial tenderizing) which 2 is electrical stimulation used on?
Artificial tenderizing) tenderness & electrical stimulation
Tenderness increases via electrical current after slaughter & before rigor mortis
Artificial tenderizing) how does electrical stimulation work?
Current speeds up glycogen breakdown & enzyme activity
Cuts of meat) what are the 2 major types of meat cuts?
Cuts of meat) wholesale cuts:
Cuts of meat) what do wholesales cuts divided into?
Cuts of meat) what are retail cuts?
smaller cuts sold to consumer
Look at slide 41 to look for physical descriptions of meat purchasing
Cuts) what goes under variety of meats?
Cuts) kosher meats
Meat from cattle, sheep, goats slaughtered according to Jew diet laws
Cuts) halal meats
Meat sacrificed according to Muslim guidelines
Cuts) halal meats: which meats are the exception ? (2)
Pork & carnivorous animals with fangs
Cuts) organic meats
Derived from cattle fed only milk, grasses, and grains from birth to slaughter
What are processed meats?
Meat changed from its original fresh cut
Processed meats ) processing methods: curing
Addition of synthetic nitrates or nitrites, salt
Processed meats ) processing methods: smoking
Exposed to smoke of burning wood
Processed meats ) processing methods: canning
Processed through either pasteurization or sterilization
Processed meats ) processing methods: drying
Meat is cooked and dried
Processed meats ) types of processed meats: ham
Processed meats ) types of processed meats: bacon
-cured & smoked from side of hog
Processed meats ) types of processed meats: sausage
Uncooked, cooked, & dry/semi dry
Processed meats ) types of processed meats: how are lower fat processed meats produced? (3)
-using leaner cuts of meat
-adding more water
-adding more ingredients
*fiber, gums, starches, whey protein
Processed meats ) mechanically deboned meat
Meat collected from the bone after butchering which is contained by grinding remaining meat and bone
Processed meats ) mechanically deboned meat: what does the meat contain>?
Ground bone, marrow, & soft tissue
Processed meats ) restructured meat
Fabricated meat made from meat trimmings and lower grade carcasses
Changes during heating) what optimizes tenderness & juiciness?
Correct temperature and right amount of time
Changes during heating) what is larding?
Keeping lean meat moist by inserting bacon, salt pork, or other fat into slits in meat with needle
Changes during heating) barding
Tying thin sheets of fat or bacon over lean meat to keep moist
Changes during heating) searing
Cooking at very high initial temps to seal the pores which increases flavor and enhances browning
Changes during heating) is blanching recommended?
No, bc of loss of water soluble compoudns
Changes during heating) flavor enhancements
Flavor can be enhanced by basting and seasoning
4 ways to determine doneness
-time weight charts
What is carry over cooking?
food continues to cook after removed from heat
Carry over cooking) how is heat distributed
From outer to inner portion of food
Dry-heat preparation) roasting: what is this?
Heating of moderate to large cuts in dry, hot heat oven air
Dry-heat preparation) roasting: what temp range is recommended?
Dry-heat preparation) roasting: cooking time
18-30 per 1lb of meat
Dry-heat preparation) broiling & grilling: for what tyope of meat is this recommended fior?
Smaller cuts of tender meat
Dry-heat preparation) broiling & grilling: facts regarding this type (2)
-high temps & short cooking time
-cooking times based on cut thickness
Dry-heat preparation) pan-broiling:
Very thin cuts heated in a pan with no oil
Dry-heat preparation) frying
Best for tender, small cuts low in fat or breaded
Moist heat preparation) what is this appropriate for?
Less tender cuts that come from heavily exercised muscle & older beef
Moist heat preparation) braising: what is this?
Simmering in covered pan in small amount of liwuid
Moist heat preparation) braising: what does it do
Breaks down collagen & tenderizer meat
Moist heat preparation) braising: simmering/stewing
Simmered while completely submerged in liquid
Moist heat preparation) steaming: when is it often used?
For large cuts
Moist heat preparation) steaming: how is this cooked?
-pressure cooker, tightly covered pan, wrapped aluminum or plastic bag
Moist heat preparation) steaming: how is doneness determined?
Moist heat preparation) steaming: heat time and temp
Long heat time and relatively low temps
Moist heat preparation) microwave
Not recommended except for thawing & reheating
Carving) what is it?
Sliced meat across the grain
Carving) grain is...
Direction muscle fibers run
Carving) slicing method...
Meat storage) what is ideal for growth of microorganisms
High percent of water & protein are ideal for growth of microorganisms
Meat storage) refrigeration times: fresh meat
No longer than 3-5 days
Meat storage) refrigeration times: ground & variety
Cook within 1 to 2 days
Meat storage) refrigeration times: cooked
3 to 4 days
Meat storage) controlled atmosphere packaging
Extends life of fresh red meat from 2 to 28 days
Meat storage) frozen: most cuts can be kept up to
Meat storage) frozen: ground beefs can be kept IP to
Meat storage) wrapping meat: retail meats in plastic wrap can be refrigerated in...
Original wrap up to 2 days
Meat storage) wrapping meat: if want to store beyond 2 days
store wrapping removed and replaced with loosely wrapped plastic wrap, wax paper, aluminum foil
Meat storage) frozen: store meat tightly wrapped in what temp?
Less than 0 F
Nutrient content) protein
7 grams per ounce
Nutrient content) excellent source of,, (5)
Calorie control) 2 ways calories ae controlled by
-limiting the serving size
-consuming leaner meats
Calorie control) serving size..
limit to 5-6 oz per day
Calorie control) what's the rule for beef and veal/lamb cuts? (2)
Leanest cuts of beef come form loin or round
Leanest for veal/lambs cuts from the loin or leg