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What is meant under the term civilization? Under what conditions did it emerge?
- Civilization: a much larger more complex, populated society. Advanced economically and politically.
- -written helped pass down knowledge -> led to creation of laws
- -religion united people
- -development of agriculture as a stable food source (permanent settlements)
- -specialized labor
- -trade, and tools
What did Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations have in common? How did they differ?
- -religious beliefs
- -divine ruling (kings)
- -traded with other civilizations
- -M ~ manipulated by the gods, and prayed not to get stuck with disaster
- -E ~ rejoiced and loved the gods (love of divine rule)
- -E ~ pharaohs saw themselves as both man and god
- -M ~ insecure of their environment
- -E ~ had a sense of security
- -M ~ trade conducted by the priests
- -E ~ trade conducted by the bureaucracy
- -M ~ afterlife was full of torment
In what ways did mythopoeic thought characterize Near Eastern civilization? How does his type of thinking differ from that of science?
- Mythopoic View: deepest thoughts of human being were in the form of religious view (source of vitality and creativity for Egyptians and Mesopotamians. They used old myths, rituals, and tales for the creation of the world and humans as well as explaining nature.
- Influence: explains world phenomena, rituals, art, misfortune explanations (myth carries truth in an understandable package)
- -this differs from science deals with measurable objects, life guided by universal laws
What elements of Near Eastern civilization were passed on to Western civilization?
- -Sumerian invention of writing
- -wheeled vehicle, plow
- -phonetic alphabet
- -(Egyptians) splints, bandages, castor oil
- -(Mesopotamia) 360 degrees, 60 minutes in an hour
- -Assyrians depicted winged angels
- -Hebrews and Greeks borrowed literary themes
Describe the Paleolithic Culture
- (1,000,000-10,000 B.C.)The earliest of cultures composed of hunters and gathers, not yet a civilization. They used the earliest forms of tools. Men hunted, while females tended fires, and gathered fruit. The development of language was what helped them evolve. There was an importance in fertility.
- -beliefs were with nature and they respected / tried to please it
What specific advances occurred during the Paleolithic and Neolithic that was crucial to their advancement?
- (9,000-2,500 B.C. Neolithic age)
- Language: helped develop the culture as well as helped teach children, spread knowledge, and build community
- Agriculture: crucial to the advancement of the Neolithic age because it provided a stable food source without having to hunt and constantly move around. Since they don't have to always be on the move, they could focus their time on knowledge advancements. (food security)
- -tools, pottery, advances in clothing (trade)
- -social class development
- -property management
What were the characteristics of the code of Hammurabi?
- The code was said to have originated from the gods and violating it was said to violate divine order. It portrayed men as heads of the family and a role to protect women and children. It had severe punishments such as death for housebreaking, kidnapping, aiding escaped slaves, receiving stolen goods, and being a false witness.
- -can be pardoned by the wronged
- -Principle collection of laws, from the gods for the Mesopotamian life culture
Did social class create a distinction in the application of penalties from the code of Hammurabi?
Yes. A commoner received harsher punishment than a nobleman. Unless it was a government official caught in extortion or bribery.
When did humanity first begin to create art?
- -First human representation in 100,000 B.C. from Africa
- -40,000 B.C. Australia
- -8,000 B.C. Asia
- -10,000 - 8,000 B.C. for writing and social art (Mediterranean)
In what ways did the story of Noah parallel the epic of Gilgamesh?
- -great flood was sent by God or the gods
- -Ea and Noah commanded to build an ark and gather all the animals
- -flood created by rainfall
- -Both men used a raven and a dove to look for land, and agreed for land when final bird did not return
How long did it take for cuneiform to develop after the first agrarian communities?
Not that long, it hit rapid growth by the end of the fourth millennium B.C.
Why did writing begin, and what did it accomplish? Why did it develop in an urban setting? What is the rebus principle? How did the principle shape cuneiform?
- -It began as a need for permenant accounting
- -Writing helped keep track of important roles
- -Developed in rural areas to keep track of food
- Rebus Principle: the representation of a word with a symbol
- -allowed writers to express their ideas more effectively
What is core and periphery?
- Core: consumers
- Periphery: consumers and producers
Post and Lintel vs. Etruscan & Roman Arch
- Post and Lintel: putting stone slabs on two long stone slabs
- Roman Arche: able to hold more weight and more effective
- (then cam steel skeletons)
What was the effect of the Nile on Egyptian culture?
- The Nile was life for Egyptians:
- -provided water and food source for crops
- -flooding gave fertile soil
- -gave birth to irrigation techniques
How did the pharaoh become a symbol of Egyptian culture? (what were his roles)
- -the idea that a pharaoh is a living god with supernatural authority helped hold together large kingdoms
- -can draft mass labor
- -Egyptians rejoiced over an all powerful ruler
- -civilization belief that divine kingship was the only way to rule massive amount of people and bring about harmony
- -everything belonged to the pharaoh
- -tried there best to govern as benevolent protectors of the land
- -provided divine order and justice
What was the basic dynastic pattern of ancient Egypt?
- After the war of liberation of the Hyskos (1570 B.C.), Egypt had a succession of aggressive pharaohs...
- -Pharaoh Amenhotep (1369-1353 B.C.) tried introducing monotheism and took the name Akhenaton (servent of Aton)
- -Tutankhamen (1352-1344 B.C.) succesor of Akhenaton, but abonded city to Thebes
- -Horemhed (1340-1315 B.C.) had all Akhenatons monuments destroyed
- -Ramesses II (1279-1213 B.C.) constant struggle with Hittities lead to a peace treaty signing, constructed huge statues and monuments (of himself)
Hittities (what role did religion and religious beliefs play in the creation of their civilization?)
- -wanted to control trade routes
- -succeeded with strong Army
- -borrowed Mesopotamian Cuneiform, legal and literal principles
- -challenged Egypt for control of Syria and Palestine
- -fell to Indo European invaders
Phoenicians (what role did religion and religious beliefs play in the creation of their civilization?)
- -guided by the sea and trade
- -devised the first alphabet
- -greatest sea traders of ancient world
Assyrians (what role did religion and religious beliefs play in the creation of their civilization?)
- -from upper Tigris River region
- -excelled in pillaging and siege weapons
- -believed gods commanded them to conquer
- -terror and deportation kept subjects in line
Neo-Babylonian Empire (what role did religion and religious beliefs play in the creation of their civilization?)
- -Chaldean empire
- -cultivated from destruction of Assyrian empire
- -Nebuchadnezzar constructed hanging gardens
- and had Babylon rebuilt
Persia (what role did religion and religious beliefs play in the creation of their civilization?)
- -settled in southern Iran
- -under Cyrus the Great the conquered all lands between Nile and Indus River
- -absolute monarchy justified by religious beleifs
- -bound by Aramaic language
- -ethically oriented toward Zoroastrianism
- -freedom to choose on who to follow
- Ahura Mazda: choosing to follow good life with an end result of eternal paradise
- Ahriman: spirit of darkness that only led to life of torment
- -490 attempts to conquer Greece
What importance did the old kingdom play in Egyptian culture?
- -brought forth art, that surrounded with life after death (Ma'at)
- -also developed skilled Artisans with monumental techniques that passed on to their culture
- -principle of frontility
- -pyramids architecture from the old Kingdom
- Maintained: created life size sculptures and produced detailed images of Nature (3000 year maintenance)
In what ways did the Hebrew view of God mark a revolutionary break with Near Eastern thought?
- Near Eastern civilizations:
- -not truly free and had power limits within them
- -not eternal, and were born and created
- -dwelt within nature
- -driven by lust at times and some even indifferent to humans
- -subject to biological conditions like sleep
- Hebrew religion:
- -God to them was all powerful
- -He had full sovereignty, and no one surpassed him
- -Nature was not divine but a beautiful creation of God
- -Each human was an individual
- -no prior existence before God
- -removal of gods from nature was necessary for scientific thought
- -Yahweh was good to mankind and made ethical demands on his people
- God was one, sovereign, transcendent, and good.
How did Hebrew religious thought promote moral autonomy?
- Fundamental idea among the Hebrew people ~ God did not create humanity to be his slaves
- -idea of self that each human is an individual
- -viewed him with awe and humility, but did not believe that they should grovel before him
- -Hebrew people had a sense of freedom, and ability to do what they want but freedom was meant voluntary obedience to the commands that originated with God
- -humans had a right of choice; there was a moral freedom among them
- -to know God was to be righteous, loving, merciful, and just ~ allowing them to overcome the worst in human nature.
What were distinguishing features of Hebrew Law?
- -Hebrew Law saw even slaves as humans rather than property
- -frowned upon over excessive masters
- -humans more important than the property
- -greater ethical awareness toward the human spirit
- -violent aspects: stoning and slaughtering the enemies of war as well as homosexuals.
- -females were also placed in subordinate positions
What were the unique achievements of Hebrew prophets?
- -the poor was of main concern
- -ethical sin was worse than ritual
- -Amos ~ spoke out against social injustice. Pursuit of justice to him was the most important requirement of the Law. He was against the exploits of the rich, and aimed to teach the idea that you must not just worship God, but you must live by his social rules.
- -Prophets helped sustain Jews for a long time, and helped them see that it is not only living and the rituals of God that you must practice, but you must experience God as well
Why are Hebrews regarded as principle source of Western tradition?
The prophet’s teachings constitute the core principles of Western thought today. The idea of pursuing justice, and not abuse authority. Christianity emerged from Judaism with similar ideas in monotheism, moral autonomy, prophetic values, and Hebrew Scriptures as the word of God.
Identify some of the important events in which the history of Mesopotamia and Egypt played a crucial role in the history of the Hebrew people.
- Jews initially originated from Mesopotamia and migrated to Canaan (later to be Palestine). The Hebrews absorbed some Mesopotamian features like biblical stories of the Garden of Eden, and Noah.
- -Then Hebrews journeyed from Canaan to Egypt to be farmers but became forced laborers for Egyptians (Ramses building project)
- -1250 B.C., Moses lead Hebrews in their Exodus from Egypt with unified belief of Yahweh
- -power split in 922: North kingdom Israel falls to Sargon, and southern kingdom Judah with Jerusalem capital
- -604-562 Babylon exile
- -Cyrus the great defeats Babylonians and allows Jews to return
What does it mean when we identify the religious view of the Near Eastern peoples as mythopoeic?
To identify something as mythopoeic in Near Eastern cultures means that the culture used myth to explain everything in their daily lives such as nature, and life. Life was guided by myths.
The Hebrew prophets proclaimed two basic messages or “justices,” what where these justices?
- -Social Justice: in which one must not just do rituals, but act upon them and live the rituals, treating all with kindness (righteousness)
- -Individualism: in which people shouldn't just live and do the rituals, but they must experience God as well
- -established in island of Crete (2600-1250 B.C.)
- -peaceful (lack of war clues)
- -massive trade economy built on wealth an leisure
- -multiroom buildings for everyone including poor
- -collapse due to volcanic eruption
- -were not Greeks nor did they speak Greek, but they influence mainland Greeks
- -first appearance in 2000 B.C.
- -major palace destruction 1350 B.C.
- -total destruction 1200 B.C.
- -no strong central government
- -geared toward warefare, heavily fortifed
What were the Dark Ages like for the Greeks?
- -1100-800 B.C.
- -insecurity, warfare, poverty, isolation
- -beuracratic system dissapeared
- -trade ceased
- -reversion toward primitive art
- -writing forgotten
- -800 B.C. town revival
- -431 B.C. Peloponnesian League invade Attica
- -Athenian expedition against Sicily ended in failure
- -many cities erupted in civil war
- -defeat of Athens in 404 B.C.
- -deterioration of Greek Ideal
What were the basic features an limitations of Greek democracy?
- During the council of 500 (Cleisthenes) members could serve but not more than twice in their lifetime.
- -membership chosen at random rather than to the ambitious citizen
- -government of amateurs
- -large aristocratic influence
- -great influence of representation of a free community, and self-governing citizens
How did the city-state differ from Near Eastern governments?
For the Greeks, there was growing realization that community problems were caused by human beings, not the gods, and thus require human solutions. This differed from Near Eastern ideas. Law became an achievement of rational mind.
How did Greek political life demonstrate both the best and the worst features of freedom as well as both the capabilities and the limitations of reason?
- -Slaves enjoyed none of these freedoms as well as aliens.
- -Women were also denied any freedoms. Wives did not dine with husbands and stayed in quarters. They were barred from holding public office. The Greeks limited rights to member of particular community.
- -The best feature would be the idea of a free, self-governing citizens and government based on laws, devised and obeyed by free citizens.
Why is the Greek political experience crucial to the shaping of Western tradition?
There is a large influence of a community of the free. With a difference that they were not oriented toward human rights and protection from state.
Describe the virtue of arête.
Originated from Homers epics. They dealt with hero’s actions, thoughts, and behavior. Demonstrated universal principle that “wicked arrogance” and “ruinous wrath” would cause suffering. Of the heroes in the epics, they worked hard to demonstrate their worth, assert themselves and achieve “aerte” which is excellence, as well as bravery and skill in battle. (Heroism – pursuit of glory and fame) Too much arête produced Hubris.
Describe the fundamental differences between the cultures of Sparta and Athens.
- -chief means of expansion was to conquer
- -agricultural labor performed by helots
- who were Messenians conquered during war (725 & 650 B.C.) that were later enslaved
- -trade and crafts were left to the Periokoi ~ free Greeks but not citizens and had no
- political rights
- -Sparta very militaristic, that concentrated on protecting position, not expansion, and valued discipline.
- -Athens known for its massive Navy and trading abilities
- -Unlike the Spartans, freedom was in
- the form of political freedom and sought full development of human personality
Identify the basic stages in the development of Athenian government.
- First was monarchy which is kings rule.
- Second was oligarchy which was rule by aristocrats (Draco appointed by aristocrats, looked for stabilizing reforms; 621).
- Third was Tyranny which was rule of one (Pisistratus expanded cultural life; 546).
- Fourth was democracy, which is rule of the people (initiated by Solon the Great who organized land rights, and clean rotation of power; 594 / Cleisthenes hoped for democracy and created representational districts, created ostracon in which pottery was used to exile someone).
How did Pre-Socratic thinkers make the transition from myth to reason.
- The process first began when some thinkers rejected mythical explanations for natural phenomena, and thought it was guided natural laws
- -first philosophers emerged 6 B.C. in Ionia, Asia Minor
What do Plato and Aristotle have in common?
- -strived to understand universal laws
- -stressed importance of knowledge and applying reason
- -Plato had little interest in the material world while Aristotle tried to discover he truth on Earth
- -Aristotle believed Forms did not come from and outside Ideal world, but in the things themselves
What was the fundamental question which inaugurated the Greek philosophical endeavor?
The Greeks rejected underlying explanation of the world in search of – “what does it mean to exist?”
Why enabled the Greeks to think about themselves and the world differently than other civilizations in the Middle East?
Unlike other Middle East civilizations, the Greeks began to deny the mythical explanations of nature and instead, searched for the underlying truth behind things. They believed nature was guided by certain fundamental laws, not myth. They had awareness for cause and effect, excluding the gods.
Who were the cosmologists and what was their fundamental question?
- -first Ionian philosophers
- -question: “How nature came to be the way it is.”
- -Thales was the first to separate science and religion by saying everything was a type of water.
- -Anaximander stated that nature was an everything was made of stuff, not just water.
- -Pythagoras found the nature in things through mathematics.
- -Parmenides thought intellect must strive past illusions – transitioning from the physical to the mental world.
- -Democritus saw the world as two; empty space and infinite number of atoms.
What was the goal of the sophists and how did this goal differ from the goal of Socrates?
- -Sophists: dismissed explaining Nature and instead traveled city to city explaining rhetoric, grammar, poetry, gymnastics, mathematics, and music. They urged citizens to improve themselves and the city by applying reason to the tasks of citizenship and statesmanship (political arête). They also held on to the idea that no truth is universally valid, and there are no universal values that fit everyone.
- -Socrates: argued that people should regulate their behavior in accordance with universal law (unlike sophists).His central concern was for humans to achieve moral excellence. With reason being the only proper guide. Believed dialogue was essential source of knowledge, and brought forth reasoned conversations.
Explain Plato’s theory of ideas.
The idea that there is a higher world of reality, independent of the world, unchanging, eternal, absolute, and beautiful. The world was unstable and imperfect, but the realm of ideas was perfect. This moves intellect towards perfect not particular.
Explain Plato’s theory of the just or correct State (form of government).
- -just state conformed to universal laws and tried to improve the moral of the citizens, not increase its power and possessions
- -Leader had to be wise and virtuous, not clever and elegant
- -believed common man was not fit to rule, and those who are chosen are normally chosen for the wrong reasons
- -believing only wise philosophers should take power.
What was the basis for Aristotle’s ethics?
- -knowledge of ethics was possible if based on reason
- -surrendering to desire brings you down to the beasts, but ignoring would be to deny human nature
- -a contemplative life would yield great happiness.
What were some of the guiding principles for Greek artists particularly during the classical period?
- -Greeks applied philosophy to Art (reason, human experience, orderly worldview)
- -Classic art was representational, and strove to imitate reality, and objectively view the world
- -Artist studied human’s anatomy to show a living likeness to humans
- -art was idealistic, depicting the essence of the thing more than what it actually is
- -Classical art placed people in their natural environment, made human form the focal point of the art, and exalted nobility, dignity, self-assurance, and beauty of the human being.
- -Polyclitus canon ~ 1/7
Describe some of the transitions and changes that occurred in Greek drama
- -Greek dramatists portrayed sufferings, weaknesses, and triumphs of the individual
- -Greek actors wore masks so each actor could play many roles
- -Socratic parallels within drama such as dialogue between thinking individuals
- -early dramatist pitted humans against the gods and destiny
- -then they pitted humans against other humans showing that we are in charge of our own actions
- -continuous strive toward humanization with an inner logic of fate or destiny
- -tragic heroes were not passive victim of fate but felt and comprehended their positions
Describe some of the basic ideas developed by Aeschylus
- -urged adherence to traditional religious and moral values
- -idea that the world was governed by divine justice
- -humans were frowned upon when emitting hubris and overstepping the gods
- -second theme was through suffering came knowledge
- -individual always in conflict with universe
Describe the developments advanced in drama by Sophocles
- -believed humans should be shaped in the way a sculptor shapes a form (in accordance with law and proportion)
- -immoderate behavior would through this off balance and cause misfortune (humans with well intentions struggled against their fate that lead to disaster)
Describe the developments advanced in drama by Euripides.
- -dealt with social issues
- -subjected human problems toward critical analysis
- -introduced reason into tragedy
- -reveals the tangled world of human passions -expressed humanitarianism.
How did Aristophanes use the medium of drama to advance his ideas concerning society?
- -poked fun at the corrupt Greek society bringing light to the evils of it
- -wrote and antiwar comedy called Listeria in which women would not love their man to end the war
- -another book, he attacked philosophers.
- -even though they were comedies, they did have dark agendas.
What was the fundamental difference in the way the Greeks composed history as compared to the various Hebrew authors?
The Hebrews maintained religion within the realm of History. But for the Greeks, history was not the record of Gods benevolence but human actions. They also had a critical attitude toward history. History was not as vital to the Greeks as it was to the Hebrews. Also they believed history moved in cycles and repeated itself.
What is the difference between Hellenic and Hellenistic civilizations?
- Hellenic age from 500 B.C. to 323 B.C. (death of Alexander the Great). Hellenistic age followed ending in 30 B.C. when Egypt fell to Rome.
- -Hellenistic Age:
- -polis for political life (absorbed)
- -dominated by monarchs cities no longer self sufficient (monarchy not popular)
- -expansion lead to more threatening world
- -freedom became avenue to good life
- -Philosophy shifted from division of Barbarians and Greeks to a community thinking, there was political expression
What were some of the consequences and effects of the idea of oikoumene?
- -the inhabited world
- -caused by ethnic / culture scattering
- -philosophers regarded civilized world as one city
- -this caused a Mediterranean world to merge
- -but sense of belonging in the city was lost
What were some of the effects of Alexander on politics and society?
- -had a fiery passion to conquer entire Persian Empire
- -Crossed into Asia minor in 334 B.C. and won every battle carving an empire from Greece to India
- -conquest brought West and East together
- -founded Greek-style cities in Asia
- -he pushed towards a fusion of disparate people and intermingling of cultures
What was the difference between Hellenistic science and earlier Greek thought, particularly that of Plato?
- -Hellenistic scientists preserved and expanded traditional science
- -experienced scientific principles
- -Earth revolved around sun
- -made sense of nature and separated science and myth
- -Alexandra superseded Athens in scientific investigation
- birth of geometry
- -regarded cosmos under universal laws (b)
- -individuals attain happiness themselves (b)
- -Hellenic ~ citizen relationship to city
- -Hellenistic ~ the individual in more complex world
- -compared to Plato they weren't nature considered but were moralists, tried to alleviate spiritual uneasiness
- -stressed tranquility and peace of mind
Identify the particular differences in some of the Hellenistic philosophies, particularly Epicureanism, Stoicism, Skepticism, and Cynicism.
- -movement toward naturalism not idealism
- Eupicureanism: (seeking pleasure)
- -taught withdrawal from civic life (citizenship not prerequisite for happiness)
- -wise individuals should not pursue fame or wealth (brings anxiety)
- -believed ordering things removed divine activity / gods could not influence humans
- -company of good friends best in achieving life
- Stoicism (Zeno's teaching): (virtue in face of fate)
- -stressed world state / city of humanity ~ people viewed as citizens of the world
- -belief that universe had an order
- -humans essentially brothers (commons outweighed differences)
- -happiness came from disciplined emotions
- Skepticism: (no rules that are true)
- -happiness achieved by recognizing that none of the beliefs that people lived by where true
- -individuals should follow the crowd
- -focused whether a truth can be arrived
- -no certainty in world, not even mathematical
- -rebelled against established values and conventions
- -no loyalty to family, city, or kingdom
- -purposefully endured physical hardships
Why are the terms individualism, universalism, and cosmopolitanism used to charachterize Hellenistic Age?
This because people stopped seeing themselves in just there city, but in as members of a worlds community.
What is the enduring significance of Stoicism for the modern world?
Stoic idea of natural law that applies to human beings, and the idea that all humans are fundamentally equal was the forefront for the idea that all humans had natural rights no government can deny.
What events helped create the need for the Roman Constitution? What were the basic structures of the Roman republic’s government?
- -began when Patricians (aritocrates) over threw the Etruscan king (509)
- -religion governed law, people, legitimized patricians
- -gradually Romans loosened religious ties and soon a constitutional system hammered out (law from public will, not god-kings)
- -constitution based on civics
- -public interest determined the law
- -constitution evolved gradually and empirically to specific needs
- -nobility still had most power
What effect did the Punic wars have on Roman expansion?
-collision with Carthage made Rome ruler of Western Mediterranean and assimilated people into their community
What were some of the consequences of Rome’s expansion?
- -Rome reduced endemic warfare in the regions
- -thousands of Greeks came to Rome
- -Romes legal experiences of other people such as the Greeks
- -rise of business class in which wealth derived from trade, tax collecting, army supply contracts
- -ransacked eastern cities and Spanish silver mines brought wealth to Rome
- -enslave aliens transported to Italy
- -slave trade vast and lucrative
- -slave revolts in Sicily
- -Italian drafting into Roman army (provincials drafted only in emergencies)
- -Romans did not interfere with religion
What events brought about the collapse of the Republic?
- -all began with agricultural crisis when Rome destroyed farms as it conquered
- -importation of hundreds of thousands of slaves
- -personnel ambition of power seekers
- -degeneration of senatorial leadership, and political rivalry that lead to violence
- -formation of private army's in which loyalty was given to the commander not Rome
- -formation of self reliant peasantry
- -civil war
- -deterioration of virtues
- -Italian civil war
What was the significance of the conflict between Plebeians and Patricians?
- -they won from the threat of seceding Rome (pay no taxes, do no work)
- -plebeians won the right to form their own assembly (Tribal Assembly)
- -plebeian pressure brought first Roman code of Laws that gave Plebeians some protection
- -access to highest judicial state
- -right to intermarry
- -alas Rome still ruled by oligarchy
What factors enabled city-state of Rome to conquer Italy?
- -thirst for farmland
- -protection of boundaries and allies
- -from superior military organization, grueling training, and iron discipline
- -advanced siege craft methods
- -character of the people and quality of statesmanship
What is the historical significance of Augustus?
- -introduction of autocratic rule
- -end to Roman Republic and beginning of Roman Empire
- -reformed the army and produced a loyal one
- -aqueducts built
- -beautified the city
- -ended civil wars and ruled out extortion of money
- -end corruption through improvement of government
What events enabled the Pax Romana?
- -the brilliant statesmanship of Augustus
- -succession of proficient rulers (selecting emperors)
- -generals tried to limit casualties, and avoid risks
- -construction of aqueducts
- -circulation of goods
- -imperial troops guarded against civil war between cities, and war between cities
- -extension of citizenship
- -extension in the freeing of slaves
What was the status of women during the Pax Romana?
- -a woman could own property
- -can keep her dowry through divorce
- -father could no longer force his daughter to marry
- -woman could hold business arrangements
- -draw up wills without husband consent
- -can come and go as they please from houses
- -upper class woman could get educated
- -times when women even controlled the throne
What was stoicism?
- -principle philosophy of the Pax Romana
- -saw universe as governed by reason
- -sought good in life, not afterlife
- -moral values from reason alone
- -valued self-sufficient people
What were some of the signs of trouble within the Pax Romana?
- -Romans exploited Egyptians to provide food to poor (frequent look for escape)
- -two suppression's of Jews by Romans
- -unrest in Egypt, Gual, and Judea
- -communication and transportation was slow
- -limited employment (because of slaves)
- -decrease in grain costs to feed poor caused farmers to go out of business
- -spiritual paralysis with a religious revolution
- -economic weakness
- -no money investments
- -Mithric Cult ~ popular in lower classes
What caused the spiritualization of philosophy?
- -philosophy tried to reach beyond the world to get comfort
- -Neo-Platonism: greater emphasis on spiritual
- -union with the One, the Good
- -religious experience and contemplation of eternal
- -fulfillment of human potential
What were some of the specific events which pointed to the weakness in the empire?
- -empire plunged into military anarchy, raided by Germanic tribes, burdened by economic desolation
- -degeneration of the Army (loyalty of soldiers purchased ~ citizenship no longer prime force of joining army ~ too many free)
- -ruinous inflation
- -repeated pillaging by Germanic tribes
- -lack of commitment from country side
What did Diocletian do to attempt to reinvigorate the empire?
- -desire to solidify the empire
- -goal achieved by municipal institutions, tighten central government, extort more taxes
- -transform to bureaucratic militarized state
- -loss of traditional and local government
- -Persecution of Christians
- -edict of Christians 23 Feb 303
What were some of the causes for the fall of the Empire
- -fall lasted hundreds of years
- -only western half fell
- -Germanic attacks on the poor west half which caused higher taxation for army and overburdened low and middle class
- -upper class no longer took interest in public life, with little help toward empire
- -withdrawing loyalty which caused government inability to retain allegiance
- -soldier quality deteriorated
- -no better way of producing agricultural goods
- -maintained wealth rather expanding
- -spent but did not produce
What are the legacies of the Roman Empire to western civilization?
- -idea of world empire united by common law never died
- -by preserving and adding to philosophy, literature, science, and arts of ancient Greece, Rome strengthened basic foundations of Roman Empire
- -Latin lived on
- -Christianity born within Roman empire