Home > Flashcards > Print Preview
The flashcards below were created by user
on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?
What is actinic purpura?
Purple patches from leaky capillaries.
Characteristics of childbearing women?
- Increased blood flow to the skin (hands and feet)
- acceleration of west and sebaceous glands
- Vascular spiders and hemangiomas (increased in size)
- Skin thickens, fat is deposited in sub dermal layers
- increased pigmentation.
- Linea Nigra: increased melanocyte stimulation hormone.
What are basal cell carcinoma?
- They are the most common cancer cell (immature cells) of the epidermis, around 80%.
- Usually found in sun exposure areas: Head and neck.
- Shiny and translucent, they grow slowly and rarely metastasize.
What are squamous cell carcinoma?
- usually more mature cells in the epidermis than basal cell carcinoma.
- Comprises 16% of skin cancer.
- Crusted, scaly, and ulcerated, they rarely metastasize.
What is melanoma?
- Arise from pigment-productin melanocytes in the epidermis.
- It is the most lethal.
- Accounts for the remaining 4 to 5%.
- Indoor tanning increases risk by 75%.
- It is increasing more rapidly than any other cancer.
What are Melanoma risk factors?
- >50 moles, 1-4 atypical or unusual moles.
- Red/light hair; light/fair skin, light eye color.
- Heavy sun exposure.
- Family history.
What are the ABCDE for screening moles for possible melanoma?
- A: asymmetry.
- B: Borders. Irregular borders, especially ragged, notched, or blurred.
- C: change in color. Variation, specially blue or black.
- D: Diameter. >= 6 mm or different from other moles, especially changing, itching, or bleeding.
- E: Elevation/Enlargement.
What is alopecia?
The partial or complete absence of hair from areas of the body where it normally grows; baldness.
What aspects of the skin should be examined?
- Mobility and Turgor:
What aspects should of the hair should be examined?
- Palpate and inspect hair.
- Quantity, distribution (alopecia), and texture.
What is Macule?
- Flat, non palpable area of discoloration
- smaller than 1 cm.
- freckles or nevi.
- freckles or nevi:
what are patches?
- Flat, non palpable areas of skin discoloration.
- Larger than 1 cm.
- Virtiligo (white patches).
What are papules?
- Raised, palpable (same size as macules, but palpable).
- less than 1 cm.
- warts, elevated moles.
What are plaques?
- Raised, palpable, rough.
- greater than 1 cm.
- confluence of papules.
- EX: pcoriasis, actinin keratoses.
what are vesicles?
- Fluid filled (serous fluid) circumscribed.
- Raised lesions,
- Less than 1 cm
- EX: herpes simplex, small pox.
What is Bullae?
- Vesicles> 1 cm
- EX: burns, large blisters.
what are Pustules?
- Similar to vesicles but with pus (cloudy purulent)
- Viscous to solid inconsistency.
- EX: impetigo, acne.
what are wheals?
- Raised circumscribed, edematous plaques.
- Pink or pale. (itchy, allergic rxn)
- Tansient. (they come and go)
- Mosquito bites, uticaria
what are Nodules?
- Raised palpable
- Larger than 1 cm.
- Deep into dermis or outwards.
- EX: Rheumatoid arthritis.
What are tumors?
- Nodules that are > 2cm.
- Or poorly demarcated. (weird shapes)
- They could be benign or malignant.
What is a cyst?
- Raised, encapsulated
- Fluid filled lesions.
- EX: sebaceous cyst, cystic acne.
What is petechiae?
- Reddish-purple discoloration. (bleeding or brushing, broken vessels)
- Small and flat.
- <0.5 cm
- Do not blanche.
What is purpura?
- Large patches
- Looks like bruising.
- Does not blanche.
What is excoriations?
- Secondary lesion
- Scratch marks.
- Raised and linear.
- May appear as crust of primary lesion that has been scratched off.
- EX: abrasion, scratches from scabies.
what is Lichenification?
- Secondary lesion.
- Thickening of the skin. (the skin over time reacts and becomes hard)
- Hardened and leather like.
- Flexor surface of extremity.
- EX: Chronic pruritis, chronic dermatitis.
what are scales?
- Raised lesions.
- Thickening of the uppermost layer of the epidermis.
- White, gray, or tan.
- Small to large.
- EX: dandruff, psoriasis, ringworm.
What are crusts?
- Raised lesions, dried serum or blood cells.
- EX: impetigo.
What are erosions?
- Depressed lesions.
- epidermis is removed or sloughed.
- Moist, usually red, well circumscribed.
- EX: ruptured chicken pox vesicle.
What are ulcers?
- Depressed lesions epidermis and part of all of dermis. (bigger than erosions)
- Concave lesions.
- Moist, inflamed or hemorrhagic.
- EX: Decubitus ulcer (bed sores)
What are the stages of decubitus ulcer (pressure ulcer)?
- I: intact skin red but not broken.
- II: Partial thickness skin erosion with loss of epidermis. Superficial, looks shallow. (starts to open the epidermis)
- III: Full thickness extending into the subcutaneous tissue. Crater-like. (need packing)
- IV: Full thickness involves all skin layers and exposes muscle, tendon, or even bone.
- * Can use Braden scale to predict risk of pressure ulcer.
What are fissures?
- Depressed lesions. (really dry skin)
- Narrow and linear skin cracks.
- Penetrate through the dermis.
- EX: Athletes foot.
what is atrophy?
- Nonspecific end product of skin disorder.
- Pale, shiny area with loss of skin markings and full skin thickness.
- EX: Steroid use, aged skin.
what is Melanoma lesions?
- Asymmetry lesions.
- Border are irregular.
- Color blue/black or variegated.
- Diameter > 6mm.
What are the parts of the nails?
What is onycholysis?
- Separation of nail plate from the nail bed.
- It is very difficult to treat. (fungus).
- EX: thyroid disease, psoriasis, mycosis of the nails.
What is nail pitting?
- Early signs of psoriasis.
- Small depression in the nail.
What is nail clubbing?
- Condition results from low oxygen levels in your blood and could be a sign of lung problems (COP, asthma, or some type of hypoxia)
What is spooning/koilonychia?
- Iron deficiency.
What is Terry's nails?
- Whitening of the proximal 80% of the nail.
- Small rim peripheral reddening.
- Older adults.
- They are not dx, they are just interesting parts to assess.
- EX: heart failure, cirrhosis, adult onset DM.
what are Beau's lines?
- Transverse grooves on the fingernails. (seriously ill)
- EX: After an MI, malnutrition, DM
What is alopecia?
- Area of hair loss.
- Traction alopecia:
what are some questions to ask the pt abt skin, hair, and nails?
- Have you noticed any changes in your skin or your hair?
- Have you noticed any moles that have changed size, shape, color, or sensation?
- Have you noticed any new moles?
- ask everyone what grooming products do they use.
what are the characteristics of older adults skin, nails, and hair?
- wrinkle and loses turgor (elasticity)
- Vascularity decreases: looks more pale.
- Actinic purpuraL purple patches from leaky capillaries.
- Nails yellow and thicken.
- Hair: loses pigment, amount of scalp hair decreases, diameter of hair shaft decreases, hair loss in all areas of the body.
- Females: facial hair after 55 yrs.
- Some of the changes may not be as prominent in darker skinned individuals.
- Sebaceous and sweat glands decreased.
What are the characteristics of children/adolecents skin, hair, and nails?
- Skin thinner and sensitive to hear and sun.
- Smooth and soft, not as "tough"
- Subcutaneous fat less developed and risk for hypothermia.
- Lanugo (soft hair on back) shed 4 months.
- Eccrie glands function after 1st month (so cannot sweat)
- Apocrine glands not producing.
- Adolescent: Aprocrine glands enlarge and become active, sebaceous glands increase sebum, coarse remittal hair (pubic and axillae)