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Who are The Milesians?
- The First Natural Philosophers (ca. 585 B.C.E.):
- Their “One Substance” Theories: all is
- Water, or
- The Boundless, or
parmenides vs Heraclitus
- Father of RATIONALISM
“There is no change; our senses are unreliable.”
- Father of EMPIRICISM
“You can never step into the same river twice; change is everywhere.”
- The world is made of “seeds”
- Each seed contains a bit of everything
- “Nous” = the binding element
- A radical:
- The sun is not a god but a red hot stone
- All the planets are made of the same stuff
- Is accused of being an atheist and is kicked out of Athens
What did Democritus believe
believed the world is made of atoms (from “a-tom” = “uncuttable”)
was a MATERIALIST; he did not believe in a “force” or “soul” controlling nature.
What did Democritus believe in? Cont.
there was NO IMMORTAL SOUL: When your brain dies, your soul dies; the atoms of it disperse and recombine to form something new.
What is The Oracle at Delphi?
Apollo speaks through Pythia, a priestess who breathes in a fume and mumbles odd prophecies.
What is The Oracle’s famous motto?
How is Plato different from his teacher Socrates?
- Plato is about both metaphysics (what makes up the reality of the world) AND
- ethics, which was Socrates’ main concern.
What is Plato’s Conception of Reality (Metaphysics)
- Behind the “shadows”of this world are ETERNAL FORMS
- No material thing is immutable, but the IDEA is eternal
What is Plato’s Rational Epistemology (way of defining knowledge)?
- 1. OPINION comes from the world of the senses
- 2.BUT KNOWLEDGE comes from our own sense of REASON
How are Humans dual creatures?
- Body and Soul
- The soul exists BEFORE birth then wakes up in a human body.
- As a human, it recollects the ideal from its former home: this is known as EROS.
What did Plato set up/create?
Plato set up his “Academy,” a school in Athens which lasted 300 years.
Math: “Let no one ignorant of geometry enter here.”
what are The SOPHISTS?
were teachers of the art of RHETORIC, or how to convincingly argue one’s opinions and show oneself to be an educated man.
what are the sophists Attitude on the world?
- Don’t even try to figure out the mysteries of the world; it’s not worth it.
- This view is also known as SKEPTICISM.
Who is PROTAGORAS?
- “Man is the measure of all things.”
When asked, “Is there a god?” he replied, “The question is complex, and life is short.”
A person who takes this view is called an AGNOSTIC.
Socrates used the technique of _____ as his method of inquiry.
Through discussion, Socrates and his pupil would attempt to reach an understanding of the “big concepts” of life.
Socrates’s greatest area of concern was?
According to Socrates:
KNOWLEDGE = ______
IGNORANCE = _____
According to Socrates:
- KNOWLEDGE = VIRTUE
- IGNORANCE = EVIL
As such, Socrates is a RATIONALIST.
why was Socrates’s in Trial in 399 B.C.E.?
- The Charges
- Introducing new gods
- Corrupting the youth
- Not believing in Athens's gods
Historians have learned that the Minoans lived in ____?
Minoan Power was based on what?
commercial trade and control of the seas
what are the characteristics of Minoan?
- 1. Minoan women had high status
- 2. Well-maintained roads
- 3. no warefare
- 4. free and open
characteristics of Achaean culture
- lived in ETHNOS
- is a POLIS
what is ETHNOS?
- Means territory
- Villages with common customs and religion
- Governed by oligarchy
what is POLIS
- Means city state
- Each had agora (marketplace)
characteristics Mycenaean cultures
Heavily fortified cities surrounded by huge walls
Created by interaction between achaeans and Minoans
who is Lycurgus?
- legendary lawgiver of SPARTA
- Established the military-oriented reformation in accordance with the Oracle of Apollo at Delphi
- Reforms directed toward three Spartan virtues
- equality (among all citizens)
- military fitness
- austerity (Sternness or severity of manner or attitude)
who is Pericles?
- Board of Ten Generals
- Served as military overseers
- generals dominated this board for 30 years
- Delian League his idea
- Moved money to athens, creating conflict but giving Athens power
who is Alexander the Great?
- Son of Philip, a successful emperor
- Legend says he was tutored by aristotle
- Became king upon the assassination of his dad
- Wished to unite greeks and persians
- Conquered lands from Persia east to India and south to Indian Ocean
Had army of 35,000
Superior weapons included catapult and battle rams
What happened after the death of Alexander the Great?
his empire disintegrated into a multitude of smaller states
Who is Herodotus?
- “father of history”
- Wrote on the Persian Wars and comparative cultures
who is Thucydides?
- He was a general
- Thucydides wrote a history of this war
What does demos mean?
who was invoked in the Peloponnesian Wars?
Who were the participants of the Persian war?
The main participants were Athenians, Spartans,Tegeans, and the Persians. In that war was one of Athens greatest moments, there army defeated a much bigger Persian army. There were perhaps 25,000 Persians and under King Darius generals landed on the Greek plain of Marathon. Spartans were unwilling to provide timely help for the Athenians, so Athens army was about 1/3 the size of the Persian army. The Persians stationed themselves for battle suitable for there horsemen. The Greeks won by encircling the Persian forces. This was a momentous event since it was the first Greek victory in the Persian Wars
What is the code of Hammurabi
- -consist of 282 laws
- -stone slab: 44 columns and 28 paragraphs
- -Hammurabi RULED FOR 42 YEARS
What are the basic tenets of the Hebrew faith
- Major tenets of Religion:
- -The Hebrews bound themselves to God in return for God’s protection.
- -Based in The Ten Commandments
monotheism vs. polytheism
monotheism:is the belief in a singular God
polytheism: is the belief of multiple deities also usually assembled into a pantheon of gods and goddesses, along with their own mythologies and rituals.
What was The Book of Job about?
Job is the original good guy in the age-old question: Why do bad things happen to good people? Job was about as close to perfect as you could get and still be human. He loved God. He loved people. He used his great wealth and wisdom to help people. Then disaster struck. His wealth, his ten children and his health were all taken away. Left with nothing but suffering, his friends come to comfort him. But, instead of encouraging him, they start accusing him, and add insult to injury. Finally, he has a “face-to-face” meeting with God. God answers with a set of unexpected questions of His own.
What is THE ZIGGURAT?
- Symbolized the Sacred Mountain
- Served as a shrine and temple
- In contrast to the Egyptian pyramids. . .
Name the two important Pyramids in Egypt
- Step Pyramid at Zoser
- Khufu’s pyramid at Giza
- Largest ever built (2 million stone blocks, 480 ft)
what happened at Thermopylae?
- 7,000 Greeks faced off against 280,000 Persians
- Defended the pass
- Because of the spartans’ strategic location the persians suffered huge casualties
- A Greek defector informed xerxes of another path through thermopylae
- 300 Spartans held the pass long enough for the Greeks to regroup, fighting to their death
- Technical victory for the persians; moral victory for greece
who is Plutarch?
- roman historian
- researched and detailed the life of Lycurgus in his text,
- “Life of Lycurgus”
- defends Lycurgus
- positive spin on all reforms
who is CLEISTHENES?
Tyrant who imposed democracy
Expanded council to 500
Expanded the court system to give people more power
Created Assembly and with it the first direct democracy in the world
who is PEISISTRATUS?
- 560BCE seized power & became tyrant; ruled until 527
- Reduced taxes
- Encouraged literature and drama
- Was supported by the people
- Encouraged switch to Cash crops
- First coinage
- Massive public works
- Waterpipes into city
- First public library
What did Draco do?
first code of laws
- debtors sold into slavery
people demanded reform
what did SOLON do?
- elected archon; ruled to 570
- Revised laws again
- Eliminated slavery for debt
- Created council of 400 to check power of archons
- Expanded citizenship and educated all classes about government
- DEMOS (people)
- KRATOS (power)