A&P 1 exam 2 (part 2)

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  1. integument?
    aka skin
  2. the integument is a?
    very large organ
  3. what accounts for 7% of body weight and is made of layers
  4. outerlayer of integument, epithelial layer is derived from ectoderm
  5. comes from mesoderm
  6. below dermis, is merely a layer of adipose tissue that the dermis sits on
  7. functions of integument?
    • protection
    • temperature regulation
    • vitamin D production
    • protection from UV
    • excretion
    • sensory reception
  8. integument protection?
    from water loss and mechanical damage
  9. ex of mechanical damage?
    friction, rubbing, being struck(hit)
  10. integument temperature regulation?
    maintain high, constant body temp
  11. 3 things that temperature regulation does in the integument?
    • body looses heat
    • conserves heat
    • perspiration
  12. if body looses heat?
    bring more blood to surface (dilate cappilaries)
  13. if body conserves heat?
    reduce blood to surface (constrict capillaries)
  14. perspiration?
    • evaporates and cools you down (evaporative cooling)
    • sucks body heat out
  15. first layer? 2nd layer? 3rd layer?
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • hypodermis
  16. hypodermis is ___ a part of the integument
  17. integument protection from UV?
    filter out with radiation bc cells are sensitive to it
  18. integument excretion?
    • boarding of body wastes
    • waste products are harmful
  19. nitrogeneous wastes?
    converted into ammonia, then ammonia is then added into perspiration to get rid of nitrogenous wastes
  20. integument sensory reception?
    to gather specific things on the external environment and place them on the surface
  21. epidermis is a ?
    cellular structure
  22. bottom layer of epidermis?
    made up of single layer of cells
  23. stratum basale
    base layer of epidermis
  24. produces all the cells found in the other 4 layers
    stratum basale
  25. during cell division in epidermis what happens?
    the new cells get pushed up from bottom (stratum basale)
  26. thicker layer in epidermis that appears to have spiny projections under microscope
    stratum spinosum
  27. cells aquire a protein called ______. The cells are also going to die which means they aren't going to come back , what part of epidermis?
    • koratohyalin
    • stratum granulosom
  28. clear, cells acquire short hill appearance and cells continue to get pushed up to upper surface
    stratum lucidum of epidermis
  29. closely packed dead cells
    stratum corneum  of epidermis
  30. in the stratum corneum the cytoplasm is replaced by _____, and the cell is full of ____
    • protein
    • keratin
  31. in the stratum corneum, the outer layer is made up of____ ? the cells on top eventually are ____
    • dead cells
    • shed
  32. accumulation of keratin
  33. 5 layers of epidermis?
    • stratum corneum
    • stratum lucidum
    • stratum granulosum
    • stratum spinosum
    • stratum basale
  34. 2 pars of melanocytes?
    • melanin
    • neural crest
  35. this can block UV radiation
  36. derivatives of the neural crest produce pigments of
  37. 2 options tanning?
    • more melanin/melanocyte
    • more melanocytes
  38. tanning is a ?
    pathological process
  39. connective tissue of epithelium of epidermis
  40. 2 layers of dermis?
    • papillary layer
    • reticular layer
  41. tense irregular connective tissue proper?
    has a lot of collagen fibers
  42. outermost, uneven layer that has fingerlike projections, has ridges on epidermis
    papillary layer of dermis
  43. ridges on epidermis and are a property of dermis are reffered to as?
    dermal ridges
  44. dense irregular connective tissue proper
    reticular layer of dermis
  45. papillary layer can often be found on ?
    • fingers, palms, feet for friction and extra grip
    • also could be your finger prints
  46. dermis layer help integument from being?
  47. 2 types of muscles of dermis?
    • arrector pili
    • striated muscles
  48. smooth, and don't have control of contractions
    arrector pilli or dermis (muscle)
  49. ex of arrector pili?
    • hairs standing up
    • getting goose bumps
  50. formed below dermis and do have control over,  theyre going to move skin
    striated muscles of dermis
  51. specific location where striated muscles can be found?
    in face for facial expressions and nonverbal communications
  52. epidermal derivatives are found in ?
  53. tube of epidermis that sinks into dermis of cells
    hair follicles
  54. takes place at end of hair follicle from shaft
    movement of pursion?
  55. no melanin in hair follicles then?
    gray hair
  56. glands that are going to stick out of side and makes sebum
    sebaceous gland
  57. oily substance that works it way up to surface to keep hair and skin from drying up, can kill some bacteria
  58. epidermal tube involved in evaporative cooling and excretion
    sweat gland
  59. 2 things that make up nails/
    • stratum corneum
    • stratum lucidum
  60. stratum coreneum and stratum lucidum of nails are?
    heavily cornified
Card Set:
A&P 1 exam 2 (part 2)
2014-10-12 17:33:15
anatomy fall 2014

The integument fall 2014
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