Biology 40s - Kingdom Plantae

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  1. what is the general study of plants
  2. botany is subdivided into... (3)
    • horticulture
    • agriculture
    • arborists
  3. role of plants (4)
    • replenish oxygen
    • food supply
    • raw materials
    • used for powerful medicines
  4. characteristics of plants (6)
    • eukaryotic and multicellular¬†
    • autotrophic/producers
    • non-motile
    • have cell walls made of cellulose
    • have chloroplasts containing chlorophyll
    • store food as starch
  5. how do plants vary (4)
    • two main groups (vascular & non-vascular)
    • the dominant reproductive generation (haploid 1N diploid 2N)
    • the production of pollen, spores, seeds, fruits, flowers
    • whether or not water is necessary for reproduction
  6. describe vascular plants (3)
    • have tissue that conduct materials throughout the plant (xylem/phloem)
    • have "true" roots, stems, and leaves
    • includes ferns, conifers, and flowering plants
  7. describe non-vascular plants (3)
    • no vascular system (xylem/phloem)
    • no "true" roots, stems, or leaves
    • includes mosses, liverworts, hornworts, and green algae
  8. define xylem
    transports water and dissolved materials throughout the plant (from the roots) within a vascular plant
  9. define phloem
    transports food (glucose) down (from the leaves) within a vascular plant
  10. describe the life cycle of plants (3)
    • gametophyte generation - produces sex cells "gametes" (sperm and egg cells)
    • during fertilization a sperm cell and an egg cell unite to form a zygote
    • sporophyte generation - produces cells called "spores" within sporangia
  11. what are the major plant groups (2)
    • division bryophyta
    • division tracheophyta
  12. describe division bryophyta (6)
    • includes mosses
    • non-vascular (no xylem/phloem)
    • rhizoids (simple roots absorb H2O)
    • needs water for reproduction (produce swimming sperm not pollen)
    • dominant gametophyte generation (haploid, 1N)¬†
    • leafy and green
  13. describe division tracheophyta (3)
    • includes ferns and their gymnosperms and angiosperms
    • vascular plants (xylem, phloem, and true roots)
    • dominant sporophyte generation (diploid, 2N)
  14. describe gymnosperms (5)
    • means naked seed
    • some trees and ferns do not produce seeds, but gymnosperms
    • include cypress, juniper, pine, fir, and redwood
    • no need for water in reproduction (produce pollen)
    • produce 2 types of spores
    • - microspores: male spores, become pollen
    • - megaspores: female spores. become eggs
  15. describe leaves (3)
    • play a role in photosynthesis
    • gas is exchanged in many openings known as stomata which are controlled by guard cells
    • at night CO2 enters and O2 leaves
  16. describe angiosperms (5)
    • means seeds enclosed
    • produce seeds that are inside of fruit or vegetables
    • ex. grass, oak, maple, iris, rose, banana, tomato
    • also known as flowering plants
    • reproduce sexually by forming flowers, fruits, and seeds
  17. define veggie
    any plant material you eat that doesn't have to do with making new plants
  18. define fruit
    the product of fertilization, contains seeds
  19. flowering plants can either be monocots or dicots and differ in 5 ways
    • number of cotyledons
    • root differences
    • vascular tissue differences
    • veins in leaves
    • flower parts
  20. gymonosperms vs angiosperms
    • gymnosperms
    • -rely on wind as their main source of pollination
    • -pollen can sit for 15 months or more before fertilization occurs
    • -seeds without fruit
    • angiossperms
    • -rely on plants and animals
    • -pollinate and fertilize almost simultaneously
    • -produce fruit
  21. Why do plants have flowers (6)
    • to create the next generation
    • make seeds to reproduce and flowers are the tools that plants use to make them
    • only flowers of the same species can produce seeds
    • provides a place to combine the genetic code from a male and a female into a single seed
    • the new plant will be the same species as the parent but not identical
    • bees, flies, beetles, moths, and humming birds are known pollinators
  22. location and function of the stamen
    • centrally inside petals
    • male reproductive organ that consists of anther & filament, produces pollen grains
  23. location and function of filament
    • connects anther to central core of flower
    • stalk that supports anther
  24. location and function of pollen grains
    • within anther
    • act as male gametes for fertilization
  25. location and function of anther
    • on top of filament
    • produces & stores pollen grains
  26. location and function of pistil
    • centrally inside petals
    • female reproductive organ that consists of stigma, style, & ovary. produces ovules
  27. location and function of stigma
    • on top of style
    • adhesive surface captures pollen grains for fertilization
  28. location and function of style
    • connects stigma to central core of flower
    • stalk that supports stigma
  29. location and function of ovary
    • at base of pistil in central core of flower
    • contains ovules
  30. location and function of ovules
    • within ovary
    • sacs contain female gametes
  31. describe double fertilization (2)
    • fusion of pollen (sperm) + ovule -> embryo (becomes seeds)
    • fusion of a 2nd pollen (1N) + polar nuclei (2N) -> endosperm (3N)
Card Set:
Biology 40s - Kingdom Plantae
2014-10-13 01:37:26

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