Carpets and Rugs

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Carpets and Rugs
2014-10-12 17:47:48
INDS 1315
Materials Methods and Estimating
Carpet Chapter Notes
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  1. BCF
    bulk continuous filament
  2. Carpet
    Usually defined as wall-to-wall and fastened down to the flooring
  3. Rugs (Area Rugs)
    Smaller than Carpet, not fastened to the flooring
  4. Criteria for selecting carpet
    Residential: Color, Cost, Comfort

    Commercial: Durability, Traffic, Cost, Maintenance.
  5. Resilience
    The ability of a fiber to spring back (crush resistance
  6. Abrasion Resistance
    Wear and Tear from rubbing or walking.
  7. Flame Resistance
    some fibers are naturally flame resistant or self extinguishing.
  8. Five most used Carpet Fibers
    Wool, Nylon, Polypropylene (Olefin), Polyester, Acrylic.
  9. Carpet Fibers - Wool
    Advantages: high resiliency, soft, dyeable, naturally fire-resistant, hides soil well, wears well.

    Disadvantages: moths, fuzzes, very expensive, easily stained.
  10. Carpet Fibers - Silk
    Advantages: soft, naturally flame resistant

    Disadvantages: degrades in sunlight, expensive
  11. Carpet Fibers - Cotton
    Rarely used in carpet, more often seen in rugs (think bathrooms)
  12. Carpet Fibers - Nylon
    Advantages: Excellent resilience, abrasion and mildew resistant, good color retention, minimal fuzzing, moderate cost 

    Disadvantages: melted by strong acids (toilet bowl cleaner), easily stained, can be bleached out by chlorine bleach, static electricity

    Is currently the most popular fiber sold in US
  13. Carpet Fibers - Polypropylene (Olefin)
    Advantages: Strong, Lightweight, Inexpensive, Durable

    Disadvantages: crushes easily, not soft, oils can stain

    Often used in commercial environments in Berber carpet.
  14. Carpet Fiber - Acrylic
    Advantages: soft, resilient

    Disadvantages: low abrasion resistance
  15. Carpet Fibers - Polyester
    Advantages: inherently stain resistant

    Disadvantages: poor resilience, attracts oily stains
  16. Carpet Fibers - Sisal
    Comes from leaves of Agave Plant

    Tough prickly fiber. Most durable of the plant fibers. Often combined with wool.

    Flat weave best minimizes the prickly feeling
  17. Carpet Fibers - Abaca
    Comes from leaves of Banana Plant.

    Course, dry hand.
  18. Carpet Fibers - Seagrass
    Comes from leaves of underwater plants

    Smooth, slightly slippery. Usually flat woven. resistant to stains. hard wearing but not prickly or rough. difficult to dye so usually only offered in natural color.
  19. Carpet Fibers - Jute
    Comes from stem of Jute plant

    soft, crisp fibers, easily dyed, usually flat woven.
  20. Carpet Fibers - Coir
    Comes from coconut shells

    Prickly stiff fibers that react to humidity by expanding and contracting. Usually flat woven for interior, although offered as pile mats for interior.
  21. Common Trade Names for Fibers
    • Anso IV (soil repellant)
    • Antron II (anti static)
    • Ultron Z (soil hiding)
    • X-Static (anti static)
    • Chromell SD Nylon (anti static)
    • Stainmaster Tactesse BCF Nylon (stain repellant)
  22. Density
    Determined by the number of tufts per 1 square yard and the weight of the yarn 

    Greater density = greater quality
  23. Face weight
    The weight of face yarn that is used to make 1 square yard. Typically, the heavier the yarn the better the quality
  24. Yarn Twist
    Generally, the tighter the twist, the more durable the carpet. Heat-set yarn will hold their twist despite heavy use.
  25. Pile Height
    the higher the height the more yarn on the surface which makes it more durable.
  26. Carpet Production Methods - Tufted
    yarn threaded needles punch back and forth through a pre-constructed backing material. tufts are secured with a latex backing then a secondary backing is applied.

    Most economical, 90% all carpets
  27. Carpet Production Methods - Woven
    Most durable and expensive, only 2% of carpets. Three types of woven carpets.

    1. Axminster: colored yarns inserted as needed, distinguished by rigid and inflexible crosswise direction of carpet. Always cut pile, usually a complicated design.

    2. Wilton: woven on a Jacquard loom, loop pile with all colored yarns carried to back to create thick carpeting; sculptured carpet.

    3. Velvet: cute-pile of solid colors.
  28. Carpet Production Methods -Flocked
    Short fiber glued to a backing using an electro-static process. Usually found in cars, planes and busses.
  29. Carpet Production Methods -Fusion Bonded
    Yarns inserted into liquid vinyl which hardens and locks yarn into place. More expensive than broadloom carpet. Usually used for carpet tiles and heavy commercial use.
  30. Carpet Production Methods - Knitted
    Very small portion of the carpet market.

    Yarns are looped back and forth trough each other. then a coat of latex and a secondary backing are applied for stability. It looks like tufted carpet.
  31. Carpet Production Methods - Needle-punched
    Made by punching batting into a base fabric. this make a flat carpet usually used for indoor/outdoor and carpet tiles. Carpet can then be printed or embossed with a design.
  32. Carpet Pile Types - Multilevel Loop
    Yarn is not cut but left looped on top.

    Multilevel has a sculptured effect, very durable, wears well on stairs
  33. Carpet Pile Types - Cut Pile
    Looks luxurious but tends to show flaws and footsteps more often.

    • Frizzy ends give a velvety texture.
    • Set yarns give a velour texture
    • Frieze is a highly twisted cut pile that hides footsteps well
  34. Carpet Pile Types - Cut and Loop
    Carved definition, hides soil well, looks good between vacuuming.
  35. Carpet Pile Types - Saxony Plush
    dense, level cut pile of about 1/2 inch or less. Yarn tufts are closely packed and present a smooth, luxurious surface. Generally used in formal settings.
  36. Carpet Pile Types - Velvet Plush
    has an even, generally dense pile; resists crushing and bending, tends to show footprints; tends to show soil more than others.
  37. Carpet Pile Types - Random shear/tip shear
    features a mixture of cut and uncut loops, creating a highly textured surface appearance. Suitable for formal and informal settings.
  38. Methods of Dyeing - Solution
    fiber dyed in liquid state, color is a permanent part of the fiber.

    (Olefins, Nylons, Polyesters)
  39. Methods of Dyeing - Stock
    fibers are dipped in a bath of dye - heat and pressure force color into the fiber. Fibers are more susceptible to bleaching and staining.

    (Wools, acrylics, polyesters, some nylons)
  40. Methods of Dyeing - Skein
    yarns spun and then dyed as orders are placed.
  41. Methods of Dyeing - Space
    Yarn is wound then dyed in three colors in stripes - creates a random, multicolored texture.
  42. Methods of Dyeing - Beck
    for solid colors; most common for cut pile carpet.
  43. Methods of Dyeing - Piece
    application of color onto greige goods - generally for solid colors
  44. Backing
    gives the carpeting dimensional stability
  45. Cushioning - Rebond
    Scraps of foam. chopped and bonded together. Use for residential use
  46. Cushioning - Waffle
    foam with pockets of air to provide cushioning
  47. Cushioning - Slab
    Firm, dense with out air pockets of waffle cushioning. Resists furniture indentation and crushing for longer than rebond
  48. Cushioning - Foam
    urethane foam, used in light traffic areas
  49. Cushioning - Fiber
    felted pad made of natural or synthetic fibers; somewhat expensive, low toxicity.
  50. Installation Method - Tackless
    also called "Stretch In"

    Think strips of wood are nailed or glued around perimeter of room and carpet is adhered to that.
  51. Installation Method - Glue-Down
    carpet is glued directly to the floor. Carpet is either used with no pad or the pad is part of the carpet.

    Used for gyms or floors where heavy equipment will be moved often.
  52. Installation Method - Double Glue Down
    pad is glued to the floor, carpet is then glued to the pad. this prevents seam peaking.